Salt Marsh Pannes and Pools   1 comment

 

New Addition to Salt Marsh Pannes and Pools: Common Ciliated , Flagellated and Amoeboid Protozoans ; Cnidaria; Platyhelminths; Nematodes; Rotifers; Annelids; Molluscs and Arthropods found in a mid-coast Maine Salt Marsh Tidal Pool from April through November 2015 including photographs and videos of most genera

 

Salt Marsh Pannes and Pools

Table of Contents

1. Salt Marsh Pannes

a. General

b. Dominant Plants

c. Less Common Plants

 

2. Salt Marsh Pools

a. General Information

b.Location

c. Common Algae and Bacteria

  1. Green Algae (Chlorophyta)
  2. Brown Algae (Phaeophyta)
  3. Diatoms
  4. Dinoflagellates
  5. Bacteria
  6. Bluegreen Bacteria (Formerly Bluegreen algae)

3. Salt Marsh Animals

a. general Information

b.Phylum Protozoa

       1. General Information

       2. Location and Description of  the Thomas  Point             Marsh Pool

       3. Location and Description of the two Wharton Point    Marsh Pools

       4. The Marsh

       5. Materials and Methods for All  Organisms

       6. Goal

       7. Ciliated Protozoans

                       a. General Information

                        b. Food Sources and Feeding Mechanisms

                                               i.Detritus as a food source

                                               ii. Unicellular Heterotrophic Bacteria as a food source

                                               iii. Unicellular Photosynthetic Bacteria as a food source

                                                iv.Ciliates that feed on Unicellular Heterotrophic Bacteria

                                                v. Filamentous Bacteria as a food source

                                                vi. Ciliates that feed on Filamentous Bacteria

                                                vii. Diatoms and Dinoflagellates as food

                                                viii. ciliates that Feed on Diatoms and Dinoflagellates

                                                 ix.Ciliates that feed on multicellular Organisms (Predators)

                           c. Movement

                       i. Ciliates that are attached to the substratum

                                                     ii. Ciliates that crawl on the substratum

                                                     iii. Ciliates that live embedded in the substratum

                            d. Descriptions of Ciliate Genera

                                                      i. General Information

                                                      ii. List of Ciliate Genera

                                                      iii. Descriptions of Ciliate Genera

 

8. Class Suctoria

 

9.Flagellated Protozoans

 

10. Amoeboid Protozoans

11.Phylum Cnidaria,(Class Anthozoa, Family Edwardsidae)

 

 12.Phylum Platyhelminthes, Class Turbellaria, Order Rhabdocoela

 

 13. Phylum Nematoda

 

14.Phylum Rotifera

 

15. Phylum Annelida: Oligochaetes and Polychaetes

 

16. Phylum Mollusca, Class Gastropoda

 

17. Phylum Arthropoda

  1. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Arachnida, Spiders
  2. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Crustacea, Order Amphipoda
  3. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Crustacea, Order Copepoda
  4. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Crustacea, Order Decapoda
  5. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Crustacea, Order Ostracoda
  6. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Collembola
  7. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Odonata
  8. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Diptera,Family, Tabanidae (Green Head)
  9. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order  Diptera,Family Culicidae, Mosquito (Larvae)
  10. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Hemiptera,Family Corixidae
  11. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Hemiptera, Family Gerridae
  12. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Coleoptera,  Family Hydrophilidae

 18.Phylum Chordata, Sub-Phylum Vertebrata, Class Actinopterygii

 

 19.Plants Commonly Found in Salt Marsh Pools

    1.Cyperaceae (Sedge Family)

    2. Poaceae (Grass Family)

    3. Potamogetonaceae (Pondweed Family)

    4. Typhaceae (Cat-tail Family)

 

 

Salt Marsh Pannes and Pools

 

a. General:

Salt Marsh pannes are shallow,sediment filled depressions in the marsh surface often created by chunks of ice being forcibly lifted upward during high tides or by large pieces of debris such as logs scouring the marsh surface. They may also be created when sections of  marsh are smothered by large mats of dead vegetation such as eel grass, delivered by spring tides . Pannes are flooded by seawater only at high spring tides. Because they are not flushed with seawater on a regular basis  water may evaporate to the point that they dry up. On the other hand they may be flooded with rain water. They are commonly invaded by Salicornia maritima, Spergularia canadensis, Sueda linearis, Atriplex patula, and Glaux maritima as discussed below.

b. Dominant Plants on Salt Marsh Pannes

 

Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot Family)

 

i. Atriplex patula (Marsh Orach)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atriplex_patula

 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ATPA4

 

 

Common orach has an erect, grooved stem, about 15 cm or more high, that branches from the base of the plant. Light green triangular leaves have a basal lobe on each side. Leaves are arranged alternately on the stem. Small greenish flowers are arranged in clusters. The salty leaves are edible either raw or steamed. Ripe seeds have been used as a laxative. There are numerous other uses for this plant. Most of the photographs were taken in late September.

Adaptations:

1. The ability to remove salts from internal fluids.

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ii. Salicornia maritima (Glasswort)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salicornia_maritima 

 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAMA11

  

This succulent species colonizes bare areas and vegetated locations within both Spartina Zones. Glasswort, about 13 cm or more high, has an erect, jointed, main stem with jointed lateral branches. Leaves, formed at each joint, are reduced to scales. The stem arises from a taproot. The plant turns bright red in the fall. Sodium is concentrated in cell vacuoles, allowing Salicornia to draw relatively fresh water osmotically into the plant. Consequently, this species has a salty taste and is often used as a flavoring agent in soups and salads. The first photograph shows S. maritima growing in a salt marsh panne.

Adaptations:

1. Responds to high salt concentrations by forming cells with greater volume such that salt taken into these cells is effectively diluted to non toxic levels. This is typical in succulent plants.

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iii. Suaeda linearis (Erect Sea Blite)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suaeda

 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SULI

 

This species, about 0.75 meters or more in height, is found in bare and colonized areas within both Spartina zones. Sueda may stand upright or sometimes sprawl over the marsh surface. Narrow awl-shaped leaves with pointy ends, arise from the stem. Clusters of green flowers are formed where leaves join the stem. Leaves and seeds are edible.

 

Adaptations:

1. The ability to concentrate salts inside root cells allowing the plant to draw fresh water osmotically into the plant.

2. Responds to high salt concentrations by forming cells with greater volume such that salt taken into these cells is effectively diluted to non toxic levels. This is typical in succulent plants.

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c. Less Common Plants

 

i.  Caryophyllaceae (Pink Family)

 

Spergularia salina (Salt Marsh Sand Spurrey)

 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SPSA5

 

 

Spergularia, about 12 cm long, tends to sprawl on top of the sediment surface for a short distance and then grows upward. Fleshy, linear, leaves are oppositely arranged on the stem. Note the triangular sepal at the base of the leaves in the close up photograph .

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ii. Cyperaceae (Sedge Family)

 

Eleocharis parvula (Spike Rush)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleocharis

 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ELPA5

 

Spike Rush is characterized by  thin, erect, short (about 6 cm high) stems some of which bear terminal, lance-shaped, red/brown flower spikelets. Flowers are covered by brown scales. Leaves are reduced to leaf sheathes around the stem. Certain waterfowl and small mammals feed on stems and seeds.

 

Adaptations:

1. A robust horizontal rhizome (Underground Stem) that anchors the plant in the marsh and gives rise to genetically identical plants at each node.

2. The ability to reproduce large numbers of individuals asexually from underground stems.

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iii. Poaceae (Grass Family)

Spartina alterniflora ( Salt-water Cord Grass)

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spartina_alterniflora

 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SPAL

 

Spartina alterniflora is described in more detail in Zone 2. At the end of the growing season, above ground biomass is decomposed first by fungi and then by invading bacteria. The aerenchyma (Open channels through the roots, stems and leaves) provide a pathway for fungi and bacteria to enter the plant, speeding up the decomposition process. Plant material is broken into smaller pieces as decomposition proceeds and the pieces are colonized by bacteria which are then consumed by a variety of organisms. A number of chewing insects may feed on the living plant. Grasshoppers for example often consume Spartina leaves. Several species of aphids can penetrate the plant with their proboscis, sucking out plant juices. Snails such as Melampus and Littorina feed by scraping plant epidermal cells, films of diatoms and other attached algae, from Spartina leaves and stems.

 

Adaptations:

1. Salt glands that remove excess salt from relatively freshwater taken into the plant by osmosis.

2. Hollow tubes (Arenchyma) that conduct air from the leaves down to the roots.

3. Relatively long rhizomes that allow the plant to quickly colonize new areas.

4. Ability to grow in areas inundated by salt water.

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iv. Primulaceae (Primrose Family)

Glaux maritima (Sea Milkwort)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glaux

 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GLMA

 

Sea Milkwort, also abundant in zone 3, is a low growing succulent species with opposite leaves (approximately 9mm long and 2 mm wide). Note the small white-pink flowers that originate in leaf axils. The flowers have 5 petals. Boiled roots have been used to treat insomnia.

 

Adaptations:

1. Responds to high salt concentrations by forming cells with greater volume such that salt taken into these cells is effectively diluted to non toxic levels. This is typical in succulent plants.

2. Has salt  glands that remove excess salt from internal fluids.

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v. Typhaceae (Cat-tail Family)

 

Typha angustifolia (Narrow Leaf Cattail)

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typha_angustifolia

 http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TYAN

 

Narrow leaf cattail is an erect plant about 2 meters high. Leaves, about 1.2 cm wide, arise from the base of the plant. They are curved on their outer surfaces and flat on the  inner. Rhizomes give rise to new individuals that are genetically identical to the parent. Two brown cylindrical spikes are positioned at the top of the stem separated by a short distance. The upper spike bears male flowers and the lower, female flowers. Later in the season as the female spike falls apart, the small seeds are trapped in a fluffy white fibrous material and then distributed across the marsh by wind. White rhizomes are edible, however the starch must be separated from the tough fibers by repeated pounding. Roots have been used to make a concoction to treat cuts, burns and other skin conditions. Female spikes collected early in the season can be eaten raw or made into a pleasant tasting jelly. In early spring, emerging stems can be eaten steamed or raw. Dried leaves have been woven into mats by native Americans. Smoke from burning dried leaves is reported to be an effective insect repellent.

 

Adaptations:

 1. Robust horizontal underground stem (Rhizome) that gives rise to new genetically identical plants along its length.

 2. The ability to crowd out competing species of plants.

3. Formation of seeds that can be carried by the wind allowing broad distribution.

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2. Salt Marsh Pools

 

a. General Information

 

Salt marsh pools are deeper than pannes and generally retain water year round. They are more stable than pannes and therefore have more diverse assemblages of organisms. One of the most exciting features of these pools is the abundant microscopic life unseen by the human eye. They include bacteria, algae, protozoans, and members of almost every major animal phylum. Too often we center our attention on more visible forms of life forgetting that they are in the minority. I therefore have included videos highlighting some of these groups. All of the videos are stored at the web site: www.vimeo.com.

Green algal mats often float on the pool surface. Enteromorpha spp., a tubular green alga is the dominant species here forming a three dimensional mat of inter-twining filaments.. Other common filamentous green algae often found in the mat include Chaetomorpha  Cladophora and Rhizoclonium . Blue green or cyano-bacteria such as Amphithrix, Calothrix, Lyngbea, and Oscillatoria as well as the brown alga Ectocarpus,  may also be found here. Algal mats along the pool edge will dry out  as the water level drops, due to evaporation.

 

 

b. Location

 

i. Thomas Point Pool , Brunswick Maine.

 Thomas Point Marsh Tide Pool Brunswick Maine

 

ii. Wharton Point Tide Pools

Whartons Point  Tide Pools Brunswick Maine

 Maquoit Upper Pool May 31 2016 (7).JPG

Upper Pool

 

Maquoit Lower pool May 31 2016 (10).JPG

Lower Pool

 

 

 

c. Common Salt Marsh Pool Algae and Bacteria (Also discussed in the  Ciliated Protozoans Section)

 

1. Green Algae:

 

 Green algae belong to a group of plants called the Chlorophyta. They have a fairly thick cell wall and are generally  grass green caused by pigments Chlorophyll a and b. Chlorophyll is contained in chloroplasts located within the cell as shown in the close ups of Cladophora , Chaetomorpha Enteromorpha and Rhizoclonium filaments.

 

i. Enteromorpha

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enteromorpha

 

 

Enteromorpha

Enteromorpha

Mat forming Enteromorpha along with Blue green Bacteria such as Oscillatoria, Chaetomorpha, Cladophora, Ectocarpus, and Rhizoclonium create a three dimensional network of filaments that increase the amount of surface area within which organisms can increase population size, hide from predators, and enjoy a greater feeding range. Enteromorpha forms circular tubes that are hollow in the center. Photosynthetically produced oxygen bubbles released into the center of the tube help lift the entire mat above the essentially anoxic pool sediment. One species (E. intestinalis) is raised and harvested commercially in Japan. It can be eaten either dried or roasted. Enteromorpha can be pulverized into a powder and used as a flavoring in soups, salads and other dishes.

The following is a video of a typical Enteromorpha Mat. The small rotating objects are dinoflagellate cells (Gymnodinium).

 

Video: http://player.vimeo.com/video/14619618 

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ii. Chaetomorpha

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaetomorpha

 

 

 

 Chaetomorpha, a filamentous unbranched alga, may be found in association with Cladophora, Enteromorpha, Ectocarpus , Rhizoclonium or by itself. Chaetomorpha may also be associated with bluegreen bacteria such as Oscillatoria. Chaetomorpha, composed of an unbranched chain of cells, is sometimes called Mermaids Hair. Chaetomorpha is a preferred food of certain amphipods and isopods and serves as a substrate for attachment by other organisms. Chaetomorpha spp. is an important source of food for organisms in marine aquaria while several marine species are processed like Enteromorpha and used to flavor food. It was found in both sites.

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iii. Cladophora

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cladophora

 

Green Alga Cladophora X400 May 19 2016vv.jpg

Green Alga Cladophora X600  Good bMaquopit Pool May 19 2016

 

Cladophora, a filamentous branched alga, may be found in association with Chaetomorpha, Ectocarpus, Enteromorpha, Rhizoclonium, or by itself. Cladophora, composed of a branched chain of cells, is a preferred food of certain amphipods and isopods. It also serves as a substrate for the attachment of microscopic organisms.  Cladophora may also be associated with bluegreen bacteria such as Oscillatoria.

 

iv. Rhizoclonium

 

Rhizoclonium is an unbranched  filamentous green alga with a thick lamellate cell wall (look at the junction between cells). Rhizoclonium was not found at the Wharton Point site. Rhizoclonium may be found in association with Chaetomorpha, Cladophbora, Ectocarpus, Enteromorpha, or by itself. Rhizoclonium may also be associated with blue-green bacteria such as Oscillatoria.

 

 

Green unbranched Alga Rhizoclonium X600 TP Pool April 24 2015l.lll  z

____________________________________Green unbranched Alga Rhizoclonium X600 TP Pool April 24 2015l

 

 V. Pandorina (Colonial Green Alga)

____________________________Chlorophyta Pandorina X600 Whartons Point Pool Sept 22 2016.jpg

2. Brown Algae (Phaeophyta)

 

Ectocarpus

 

Ectocarpus is a filamentous brown alga. It produces  green colored chlorophyll a and b.  The green color however is masked by the brown pigment Fucoxanthin. They have a life cycle that alternates between sporophyte and gametophyte generations. The sporangium seen on the second photograph produces haploid spores each of which will develop into a gamete forming gametophyte. The brown Ectocarpus filaments are often mixed in with Chaetomorpha, Cladophora, Enterumorpha and Rhizoclonium filaments. They also are often associated with bluegreen bacteria such as Oscillatoria.

 

Brown Alga Ectocarpus X400 Maquoit Pool  May 19 2016 (1).jpg

Brown Alga Ectocarpus Sporangium       X400Maquopit Pool May 19 2016

Oscillatoria and Ectocarpus X600 Maquoit Pool May 19 2016

3.  Salt Marsh Pool Diatoms

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/diatom

 

Photosynthetic, unicellular diatoms are abundant in the algal mat in both locations. They may be attached to Enteromorpha and other filamentous algae or lie unattached. They belong to the Bacillariophyceae, a division of the Chrysophyta. The cell is protected by a cell wall (Frustule) impregnated with silicon dioxide. The frustule is made up of two halves (Valves) that fit together like the top and bottom of a shoe box. Valves are often adorned with fine lines as shown below. In addition to the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and b, diatoms have fucoxanthin and β (beta) carotene) that give them their characteristic golden color. They are an important food source for a number of protozoans.

 

Common Diatom Genera

 

1.  Achnanthes X600

Diatom Achnanthes X600 pp TP Pool April 24 2015.jpg

Diatoms  Achnanthes attrached to Enteromorpha X600 6.jpg

2. Amphora X600

 

 Diatom Amphora, Good X400 Baybridge Intertidal 9 11 2014 (1).jpg

Diatom Amphora X600  Good Thomas Point Pool May 11 2015.jpg

Diatom Amphora X600Whartons Point Pool Sept 22 2016 aa.jpg

https://vimeo.com/183554815  Amphora X600

3. Amphiprora X400

 

Diatom Amphiprora X400 Good xzTP Pool May 24 2015.jpg

Diatom AmphiproraX600 TP Marsh Pool March 3 2016mm.jpg

Diatom Amphiprora X600 Good  Marsh Pool Mid TP 8 7  2015 (1).jpg

Diatom Amphiprora  Frustule GoodX600 cc  TP Pool  May 11 2015.jpg

https://vimeo.com/182934408  Amphipora X600

 4. Anomoeoneis

 

Diatom Anomoeoneis X600 Thomas Pt Pool 9 22 2016.jpg

https://vimeo.com/184885911   Anomoeoneis X600

5. Asterionella X600

 

Diatom Asterionella 4  TP Pool X600 4 24 2015.jpg

6. Caloneis X600

 Diatom Caloneis  spp.jpg

https://vimeo.com/182935880  Caloneis X600

7. Cosinodiscus

 

Diatoms Coscinodiscus X600 Baybridge Intertidal 9 11 2014 (2).jpg

https://vimeo.com/121178585  Cosinodiscus X600

 

8. Cymbella

 

diatom-cymbella-600-tp-marsh-pool-march-3-2016

 

https://vimeo.com/182935881  Cymbella X600

 

9. Diploneis

 

Diatom Diploneis  X600 New Pool near road TB 6 22 2015.jpg

https://vimeo.com/183719149  Diploneis X600

 

10. Fragillaria

 

Diatom  Fragillaria spp.jpg

Diatom Fragillaria spp.jpg

 

11. Gyrosigma

 Diatom Gyrosigma  Bluegreen OscillatoriaX100 Marsh Pool TB July 17 2015.jpg

Gyrosigma X400 GoodThomas Pt Pool 9 22 2016.jpg

 https://vimeo.com/182935882  Gyrosigma X400

https://vimeo.com/182936998  Gyrosigma X400

 https://vimeo.com/187673632  Gyrosigma Frustule X600

 

12. Licmophora

 

 diatom-licmophora-x600-thomas-point-marsh-mid-marsh-pool-7-29-2015zz-3

13.  Melosira

 

Diatom Melosira  TP Pool X400 4 24 2015.jpg

14. Navicula

 

Diatom Navicula spp.jpg

https://vimeo.com/121189057  Navicula X600

15. Nitzschia

 

Diatom Nitzschia X600 Marsh Pool TB May 28 2015.jpg

 

https://vimeo.com/183239455  Nitzschia X600

https://vimeo.com/183239453  Nitzschia X600

 

16. Pinnularia

 

diatom-pinnularia-x400baybridge-intertidal-9-11-2014-bb

diatom-pinnularia-a-x600-maquoit-pool-may-19-2016

diatom-pinnularia-f-tt-p-marsh-mid-pool-9-27-2015

 diatom-pinnularia-jj-x600-thomas-pt-pool-9-22-2016

Diatom Pinnularia 10 TP Marsh Pool March 20 2016.jpg

https://vimeo.com/121199634  Pinnularia X400

https://vimeo.com/184885859  Pinnularia X600

17. Plagiotropis

 

Diatom Plagiotropis  X600 vv Thomas Point Pool May 11 2015.jpg

https://vimeo.com/183239454  Plagiotropis X600

 

 

18. Unidentified Diatoms attached to Enteromorpha X600

Diatoms on Cladophora X600 Maquoit Upper Pool May 25 2016.jpg

 

19. Surirella

 

Diatom Suriella  X600 llMarsh Pool TB June 22 2015.jpg

 https://vimeo.com/121257808  Surirella X400

 

20. Synedra

 Diatoms Synedra  X600 cT P Marsh Mid Pool 9 27 2015.jpg

21. Tabellaria

 

Diatom Tabellaria spp.  X400 BB 6 3 2014.jpg

__________________________________________Diatom Tabellaria  X600 TP Marsh Pool Nov 9 2015.jpg_______________________

 

4. Salt Marsh Pool Dinoflagellates

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinoflagellates

 

 Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium X600 TP Pool April 24 2015 a (3)

Gymnodinium Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium Marsh Pool TB July 17 2015

Flagellate Amphidium X600TP Marsh Pool March 20 2016 vv (2)

Flagellate Amphidinium X1000 TP Marsh Pool April 5  2016

 Photosynthetic Dinoflagellates are generally a major component of marsh pool ecosystems. They are an important food source for a number of invertebrate species. Most are unicellular and are characterized by an equatorial groove shown in the photograph above The video below shows the general anatomy of a dinoflagellate cell including a beating flagellum. There are two flagella. The first lies in the equatorial groove and encircles the cell. When it beats it generally causes the cell to spin. The second flagellum, also attached in the groove, extends out into the water column (Trailing Flagellum). It can be seen in the first video lashing back and forth (Look Carefully). The bilaterally symmetrical rigid cell, contains yellow-green chloroplasts. They have the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and b as well as accessory pigments (Carotenoids and Xanthophylls). Certain species are harmful, forming toxic blooms (Red Tide for example). Both Amphidinium and Gymnodinium were abundant in the Thomas Point marsh pool from  spring to early fall and in the two Wharton Point pools in April and May 2016.

 

Video 1:   http://player.vimeo.com/video/24797751

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5. Salt Marsh Pool Bacteria 

  

i. Heterotrophic Bacteria 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria

 

Heterotrophic bacteria are unable to manufacture their own food as green plants do. They generally produce enzymes that digest the organic matter in dead and dying organisms. Products of digestion contain a number of elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus that are necessary to sustain life. Nitrogen or nitrogen containing compounds can be used for example to make protein. Phosphorus along with other chemical elements can be used to synthesize ATP and DNA. They absorb some of these compounds for their own use and leave behind some that can be used by other organisms. Photosynthetic bacteria are able to make their own food. Heterotrophic bacteria are consumed by a number of filter feeding organisms.

Look carefully at the videos of heterotrophic bacteria below and see if you can find circular (Cocci), rod-shaped (Bacilli), and spiral- shaped (Spirilli) forms.

 

https://vimeo.com/153283181 Rod-Shaped Bacteria (Bacilli) X600 Upper Right

https://vimeo.com/153279319 Spiral-Shaped (Spirilli) and Circular Bacteria (Cocci) X600

https://vimeo.com/153279316 Spiral (Spirilli) Bacteria X600

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ii. Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria

Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purple_bacteria

  

 

 

Green algae form sugars photosynthetically as shown in the following general equation: CO2 + 2 H2O = CH2O (Sugar)+ H2O + O2.

Purple photosynthetic bacteria form sugars photosynthetically using hydrogen sulfide instead of water as follows:

CO2 + 2 H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide) = CH2O + H2O + 2S (Sulfur).

The purple photosynthetic bacteria form pink to purple mats along pool edges and are often consumed by filter feeding organisms.

 

 

6. Salt Marsh Pool Bluegreen Bacteria (Formerly Called Bluegreen Algae)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/cyanobacteria

Blue green bacteria produce sugars photosynthetically using water as a hydrogen source. They may be unicellular or form colonies. One type of colony is a filament, made up of cells stacked on top of one another. Certain filamentous species glide over the substratum while others may wave back and forth as shown in the movies below. Blue green bacteria are an important component of salt marsh ecosystems because of their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. They use this nitrogen to form their own proteins and other important compounds and when they die and decompose, this nitrogen is made available to other organisms for their own use. Several species live in salt marsh pools. One of the most common, Amphithrix spp.,attaches to clumps of detritus or filamentous green algae. Oscillatoria spp. , another common blue green present throughout the summer and fall, consists of long uniformly wide filaments without an obvious sheath. Lyngbea spp., on the other hand, looks like Oscillatoria, but is enclosed in a conspicuous sheath. Anabena whose filaments resemble a string of pearls may also be found here. Many of the blue greens are directly consumed by several genera of ciliated protozoans.

 

a. Oscillatoria spp. 

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oscillatoria

In the video below an Oscillatoria filament glides across the screen.

 

https://vimeo.com/14486933  Oscillatoria Movement X400

 

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b. Calothrix Filaments X400 (Relatively Rare)

www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/calothrix

 

 

Calothrix was not found at the Wharton Point site.______________________________________

c. Lyngbea spp. X400

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyngbya

 

 

This species (X430) has an obvious, colorless sheath and is non-motile. Note the diatoms attached to the side of the lower Lyngbea filament.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

d. Beggiatoa spp. X400

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beggiatoa

 

 

Beggiatoa is a  filamentous bacterium that forms white mats on the mud surface around the edges of salt marsh pools. It is normally found in hydrogen sulfide rich environments. The filaments may be colorless or contain dark sulfur granules. The bacterium oxidizes hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur, providing energy to fuel their metabolism. Note the movement of the filaments in the video below.

 

https://vimeo.com/149409486  Beggiatoa X400

 

e. Amphithrix

Amphithrix  filaments arise from a basal mat and taper to a fine point. They lack heterocysts.

Bluegreen Amphithrix X400

___________________________________Bluegreen Bacteria Amphitrix X600 TP Pool April 24 2015_______________________________________________________________

 f.  Chlorococcus X600

 

Bluegreen Chlorococus X600 Whartons Point Pool Sept 22 2016.jpg

Salt Marsh Pool Animals

 

a. General Information:

 

“A bewildering swirl of tiny creatures dominates life in the oceans. More numerous than the stars in the universe, these organisms serve as the foundation of all marine food webs, recycling major elements and producing and consuming about half the organic matter generated on earth each year (1)”

Armbrust, E.V. and S.R. Palumbi, 2015. Uncovering hidden worlds of ocean biodiversity. Science, Volume 348: 865-867.

(1) Refers to: F. Azam and F. Malfatti, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 5, 782 (2007)

Protozoans have always fascinated me. That a single celled organism which is 20 microns long,can carry out most of the same general functions as a multi cellular human being is mind blowing.

Every time I examine  a drop of of water from one of these places, I feel like I’ve been transported into a new world far more exciting than most places I have visited. Videos that accompany most descriptions of  these microscopic forms will allow you to visit these hidden worlds and hopefully share some of my experiences.

 

b. Phylum Protozoa

Ciliated, Flagellated and Amoeboid  Protozoans commonly found in three mid-coast Maine Salt Marsh  Tidal Pools

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/protozoa 

 

 

 The first tidal pool, located on the Thomas Point Marsh in Brunswick Maine, was sampled from April through November 2015. The second and third pools (Lower and Upper), located on the Wharton Point Marsh, were studied  from April through May, 2016.

 

2. Location and Description of the Thomas Point Marsh Pool

 

Thomas Point Marsh Tide Pool Brunswick Maine

Mid Marsh Pool Thomas Point Marsh July 29 2015  (4)

Mid-Marsh Pool Thomas Point Marsh 5 29 2015 (23)

Mid Marsh Pool Thomas Point Marsh July 29 2015  (8)

 

The pool (N 43 degrees 54.0865’/ W .069 degrees 53.3542 ‘; Elevation -00067 feet above sea level) is located in a typical salt marsh at the landward end of a bay that is adjacent to Thomas Point in Brunswick Maine. The pool is about 94 feet long on its rounded northern side ,16 feet wide at its square western edge, and about three feet across at the eastern end. It is connected to a smaller pond by a short channel. No samples were collected in this section of the pool. Pool water is about 14 inches deep in the center and 3-4 inches deep along the edges.

Green algal mats, seen in the photographs above, float on the pool surface , however they often are tethered to the bottom by strands of dead algae. Mats of the green alga Enteromorpha along with Chaetomorpha, Cladophora, Rhizoclonium and several filamentous blue green bacteria, create a three dimensional network of filaments that increase surface area within which organisms can grow, hide from predators, and enjoy a greater feeding range. Enteromorpha forms circular tubes that are hollow in the center. Photosynthetically produced oxygen bubbles,released into the center of the tube,help raise the entire mat above the essentially anoxic pool sediment. One species (E. intestinalis) is grown and harvested commercially in Japan. It can be eaten either dried or roasted. Enteromorpha can be pulverized into a powder and used as a flavoring in soups, salads and other dishes.

The video of Enteromorpha (  https://vimeo.com/14619618) shows the single celled dinoflagellate Gymnodinium erratically moving within the algal mat.

 

3. Location and general description of the two Wharton Point Marsh Pools

 

Whartons Point  Tide Pools Brunswick Maine

 a. The upper pool is located at the landward edge of the marsh next to Maquoit Road (43˚52’07.56″N and 69˚59’32.77″W). It is about 25 feet long and 20 feet across at its widest point. The pool is shallow (about 3 inches deep at its center) and is flushed with tidal water infrequently. Pool salinity  can be significantly diluted with rainwater. On the other hand pool salinity can significantly increase by evaporation on hot and sunny days.

 

Maquoit Upper Pool May 31 2016 (7)

 b.  The lower Maquoit pool is similar to the Thomas Point Marsh. It is approximately 290 feet long and 55 feet across at the widest point.It is about 12 inches deep at the center. Its location is printed on the Wharton Point Google map.

Maquoit Lower pool May 31 2016 (3).JPG

4. The Marsh:

 

In September, the marsh disappears. The above-ground parts of marsh plants die back and are partially digested by fungi and bacteria, reducing them to small pieces (detritus) that can be trapped on the mud surface or flushed out to sea providing food to organisms on the sea floor. A portion of this detritus is washed into intertidal marsh pools joining organic matter from previous years. Most of the detritus is formed by bacterial and fungal decomposition of filamentous green algae (Enteromorpha, Chaetomorpha, Cladophora and  Rhizoclonium ) and  vascular plants (Distichlis spicata. Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens).

Spartina alterniflora

Spartina patens

Distichlius spicata

Tidal water reaches the upper pool on the highest tides providing oxygen and dissolved nutrients to pool inhabitants. Rain water may temporarily reduce salinity of pool water; however most of the flora and fauna are able to adapt and survive. During winter, the pool may freeze from top to bottom. Many protozoans over-winter by forming protective cysts and emerge after the ice melts. In  summer, especially during long stretches of sunny weather, evaporation may increase pool water salinity. Algal mats along the pool edge dry out as water level drops, leaving a white band of dried algae and salt behind.

 

5. Materials and Methods

 

Samples of surface sediment and floating algae were collected at 6 evenly distributed sites around the pool perimeter using a turkey baster on the following dates in 2015 in the Thomas Point Pool: April 24; May 8 and 11; June 9 and 22; July 7, 17 and 29; August 7; September 5 ,27; October 12 and November 9; and in the Upper and Lower pools in the Wharton Point Marsh on March 3 and 20th in 2016. All samples were placed in a plastic bucket and pool water was added to a depth of about 15 cm. At home,  sediment and algae were stirred vigorously, and allowed to settle. Samples for microscopic examination were collected with an eyedropper at six randomly selected locations in the bucket. Two drops of each sample were placed on separate glass slides and examined at 40X under a compound microscope (Nikon Eclipse E200) for large organisms. Then a cover glass was placed over exposed samples and examined under 100X, 400X , 600X (Nikon dry objective) and occasionally at 1000X (oil immersion objective) . Sediments and algae  in each of the buckets was re-examined each week for three weeks after the collection date.

The procedure discussed above was not an attempt to determine population sizes of individual genera from spring through fall but to ensure, as much as possible, that most of the common genera would be found.

Genera ,for the most part,appeared to be represented by only one species .Surprisingly  genera collected from the Thomas Point Pool were essentially identical to those found at both Wharton Point Pools.

 

Videos (1790×1327) were filmed through a trinocular compound (Nikon Eclipse E200 ) microscope with a C-Mount Digital ToupTek Camera (USB3 CMOS 10000K PA) equipped with a 10 Mega pixel chip at about 24 frames per second and saved as WMV files. The WMV files were converted to the Vimeo format and their codes embedded in the manuscript so that they can be accessed directly from the Vimeo web site. Some of the still photographs (3584×2746) were taken using the same setup described above. A number of the still photographs were taken from my MWV movie files using Photoshop CS6. Organisms were identified to Genus whenever possible using the keys listed below as well as other resources.

Jahn, T.L., E.C. Bovee and F.F. Jahn . 1978. How to Know the Protozoa. 2nd Edition. Wm.C . Brown Co,, Dubuque Iowa, 279 pp.

Patterson, D.J., 1996. Free-Living Freshwater Protozoa, a color guide. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 223 pp.

Pennak, R.W, 1991. Fresh-Water Invertebrates of the United States. Protozoa to Mollusca.Third Edition. Wiley Interscience, New York, 628 pp.

The Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. 2000., 2nd Edition. Volumes 1 and 2 . Society of Protozoologists.Allen Press, Lawrence Kansas.

Thorp, J.H. and A.P., Covich, Eds. Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates 2010. Third Edition. Chapter 3 ,Protozoa (W. Taylor and R.W. Sanders), Pages 49-90. Elsevier (Academic Press), New York.

The web site was first constructed using Dreamweaver CS6 and then transferred to WordPress.

Digital images and videos provided on this web site may be reproduced for non-commercial, personal, educational or scientific purposes only. Copying or redistribution in any way for personal or corporate gain is not allowed without written permission from Robert Zottoli (rzottoli@roadrunner.com) . Use the following format to name pictures and give credit to photographer Robert Zottoli:  https://zottoli.wordpress.com/.

 

6. Goal:

 

My goal is to identify most of the common invertebrate genera and to determine how each genus carries out its daily activities and interacts with other species in the pools. Hopefully, this information will provide baseline information that can be used to determine if any changes occur over time. If for example, it was found that the number of ciliate genera was reduced from 44 to 16., it might be a warning that the ecosystem is in trouble. Loss of diversity in general has been implicated in reducing the ability of ecosystems to recover when they are exposed to stresses such as temperature increases due to global warming. The unseen microscopic world supports the visible world in many ways. Damage at this level could result in ecosystem collapse and possible loss of economically important species.

 I have identified  27 genera of ciliated protozoans from a sphagnum bog(https://boginvertebrates.wordpress.com/), 30 genera from fresh water intertidal sediments (https://protozoansintertidal.wordpress.com) and now 44 genera from three salt-marsh tidal pools

 

7.  Ciliated Protozoans

a. General Information

 

Protozoans, are generally microscopic, unicellular organisms classified by cellular structures responsible for movement (Pseudopodia, Flagella and Cilia). They possess membrane bound cellular organelles such as Nuclei, Food Vacuoles, and Lysosomes. Food is captured in many different ways, however in most cases, after capture, it is contained in a spherical bubble (Food Vacuole ) that is formed from the cell membrane and released into the cell interior. Food vacuoles fuse with membrane bound lysosomes that contain digestive enzymes. Enzymes break down food into units that protozoans can use for their own metabolic needs. In freshwater environments, water constantly passes into protozoan cells osmotically. If unchecked, the cell membrane will stretch and rupture. To counter this process most freshwater forms have contractile vacuoles that collect incoming water and then move it to the outside. In sea water, however, at a salinity of about 35 parts per thousand, water would not be osmotically drawn into the cell prompting the question as to why do a number ciliates in salt water tide pools have active contractile vacuoles? One obvious answer to this question would be that rain can quickly reduce pool water salinity providing an advantage to those that can regulate their internal water content.

Some of the protozoan videos can be used to investigate the anatomy, movement , and feeding mechanisms of select organisms especially in laboratory classes that lack microscopes or the funds to purchase live organisms. Most of the ciliate genera were present from early spring to early fall.

 

b. Food Sources and Feeding Mechanisms

 

Although I discuss types of food available to ciliates as well as feeding mechanisms in this section, more information may be found for individual genera in section 10. ( Descriptions of Ciliate Genera ).

 

i. Detritus as a food source

 

A number of ciliated protozoans either consume detritus directly or ingest it along with their preferred prey. Detritus by itself has little nutritive value. Bacteria and other microorganisms that are associated with detritus add to its value as a food source. The ciliate Coleps in the video below is facing into a clump of detritus using its anterior ring of cilia to loosen and ingest bacteria along with loose detritus.

https://vimeo.com/147193035 Coleps X600 Feeding on Detritus

 

ii. Unicellular Heterotrophic Bacteria as a food source

 

Bacteria belong to a large group of microscopic, unicellular organisms that can generally be separated by shape. Look carefully at the videos below and see if you can find circular (Cocci), rod-shaped (Bacilli), and spiral- shaped (Spirilli) types of bacteria.  Heterotrophic bacteria  are generally the smallest dots . Heterotrophic bacteria are unable to manufacture their own food as green plants do. They generally produce enzymes that digest the organic matter in live, dead and dying organisms. The products of digestion contain a number of elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus that are necessary to sustain life. Nitrogen or nitrogen containing compounds can be used for example to make protein. Phosphorus along with other chemical elements can be used to synthesize ATP , RNA and DNA. They absorb some of these compounds for their own use and leave behind some that can be used by other organisms. Unicellular heterotrophic bacteria may be associated with detritus or float freely in the water column. As mentioned above certain ciliates such as Coleps, graze on bacterial cells that are present in detritus.

 

https://vimeo.com/153283181 Rod-Shaped Bacteria (Bacilli) X600 Upper Right

https://vimeo.com/153279319 Spiral-Shaped (Spirilli) and Circular Bacteria (Cocci) X600

https://vimeo.com/153279316 Spiral (Spirilli) Bacteria X600

 

iii. Unicellular Photosynthetic Bacteria as a food source

 

Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria form pink to purple mats along pool edges. Photosynthetic bacteria are able to manufacture their own food.

https://vimeo.com/153279311 Purple- Red Photosynthetic Bacteria X1000

iv. Ciliates that feed on Unicellular Heterotrophic Bacteria

 

Stalked ciliates such as Cothurnia , Vorticella and Zoothamnion are filter feeders that create circular water movement with their anterior crown of cilia that bring bacteria towards the mouth and into a short ciliated tube (Cyto-pharynx). Refer to the following video showing movement of particulate matter created by the action of the anterior crown of cilia:

https://vimeo.com/160160277 Vorticella X600

A rounded food vacuole is formed as bacteria push against the blind end of the cyto-pharynx. The food vacuole enlarges and eventually pinches off traveling through the cytoplasm where digestion occurs. The entire process can best be seen in the video of Cothurnia below.

Vorticella and Zoothamnion are bell-shaped ciliates that are attached to the substratum by contractile stalks.Vorticella has a single stalk attached to one cell while Zoothamnion has a dichotomously branched stalk with a cell at the tip of each branch. The stalk has a centrally located contractile thread (Spasmoneme) that can pull the individual or colony downward quickly, out of harms way. They are characterized by an oral ciliated membrane that starts in the oral cavity and winds spirally in a counter clock wise direction to a point along the edge of the area that surrounds the mouth. There are no somatic cilia on the cell body.

a. Vorticella

 

Ciliate Vorticella spp

https://vimeo.com/153027502  Vorticella X600 Feeding

 

In the video the football-shaped food vacuole is located on the far right of the broad cell opening. Tiny circular bacteria are visible inside the vacuole. Watch carefully as the vacuole breaks away and circulates in the cytoplasm.

Certain species of Vorticella contain internal symbiotic, single cell, green algae as shown in the video below.

https://vimeo.com/81200324 Vorticella with symbiotic green algae X400

 

The green algae produce food for themselves and their host photosynthetically. The green algal cells benefit from the association by having a stable place to live and reproduce.

 

b. Zoothamnion

 

Ciliate Zoothamnion Good X600 TP Marsh Pool April 30  2016  (3)

Zoothamnion is similar to Vorticella.

 

c. Cothernia

 

Ciliate Cothernia X600 TP Pool April 24 2015l  (3)

The football shaped food vacuole is situated internally on the far left of the anterior end as shown above.  In the video below, look closely as the food vacuole breaks away and circulates in the cytoplasm. Note the small round bacteria in other food vacuoles.

https://vimeo.com/147844059 (Cothurnia)

v. Filamentous Bacteria as a food source

 

Blue green bacteria produce sugars photosynthetically using water as a hydrogen source. They may be unicellular or form colonies. One type of colony is a filament, made up of cells stacked on top of one another. Certain filamentous species glide over the substratum while others may wave back and forth as shown in  videos below. Blue green bacteria are an important component of salt marsh ecosystems because of their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. They use this nitrogen to form their own proteins and other important compounds and when they die and decompose, nitrogen is made available to other organisms for their own use. Several species live in salt marsh pools. One of the most common, Amphithrix spp., attaches for the most part to green algae such as Enteromorpha. Amphithrix filaments taper to a point and lie within an obvious sheath. Oscillatoria, another common blue green, consists of long uniformly wide filaments without an obvious sheath. Lyngbea , on the other hand, looks like Oscillatoria, but is enclosed in a conspicuous sheath.  Anabena may also be found here. The filaments resemble a string of pearls.

a. Oscillatoria

 

Bluegreen Oscillatoria X600 Marsh Pool TP 7 17 2015

https://vimeo.com/149409495 (Oscillatoria X600 )

https://vimeo.com/150037297 (Oscillatoria X600)

 

b. Amphithrix

 

Amphithrix  filaments arise from a basal mat and taper to a fine point. They lack heterocysts.

 

Bluegreen Amphithrix X400

Bluegreen Amphitrix X600 Thomas Point Pool May11 2015 (1)

 Bluegreen Bacteria Amphitrix X600 TP Pool April 24 2015

c. Beggiatoa

 

Bacteria Beggiatoa X600 Marsh Pool TP 7 17 2015

Beggiatoa is a filamentous bacterium that forms white mats on the mud surface around the edges of salt marsh pools. It prefers hydrogen sulfide rich environments.  Filaments may be colorless or contain dark sulfur granules. The bacterium oxidizes hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur, providing energy to fuel their metabolism. Note the movement of filaments in videos below.

https://vimeo.com/149409486 (Beggiatoa X600)

https://vimeo.com/150037292 (Beggiatoa X400)

 

vi. Ciliates that Feed on Filamentous Bacteria

 

a.  Dysteria

 

Ciliate Dysteria X600 b TP Pool April 24 2015  (2)

Dysteria, has an adhesive spike at the posterior end. Cilia are restricted to the ventral surface. The ventral mouth is surrounded by a basket of rods that move food such as filamentous bacteria, into the cell.

In the following video,  Dysteria ingests a long, darkly colored,bacterial filament (Beggiatoa). At the very beginning of the video no filament is visible inside the cell. Within a short time (about 1:08) , the entire black filament is quickly drawn internally through the mouth with the help of contractile micro-tubular rods.

 

https://vimeo.com/147853470 (Dysteria X600)

 

b. Nassula

 

Ciliate Nassula X600 New Pool near road TB 6 22 2015

Nassula contains a large number of what appear to symbiotic green algae. The oval, uniformly ciliated animal is slightly flattened. The mouth, near the anterior end, is surrounded by a cylinder of micro-tubular rods that help draw in filamentous blue green bacteria such as Oscillatoria.

The video below shows Nassula grabbing a straight Oscillatoria filament, bending it in half, and drawing it into the cell. As blue green algae are digested the pigments change color from blue green to red, purple and orange. The ciliate moves in a more or less straight line until it comes in contact with a clump of detritus. At this point Nassula often pushes its anterior into the debris presumably searching for food. They occasionally rotate around the central anterior-posterior longitudinal axis as they move forward.

 

https://vimeo.com/114251655  Nassula X600

 

 

c. Frontonia

 

Frontonia X400 b

Frontonia X400 a

 Frontonia is a large, oval, flattened ciliate with a single layer of vertical trichocysts (Visible) just underneath the cell membrane. The cell mouth is a small, anterior oval slit.Frontonia feeds for the most part on diatoms, dinoflagellates and blue-green bacteria.Micro-tubular rods are situated around the mouth. They are uniformly ciliated and glide smoothly from place to place. They sometimes rotate on their central anterior-posterior longitudinal axis as they move forward.

 

https://vimeo.com/149409532  Frontonia X600 Mouth

https://vimeo.com/149409537  Frontonia X600 With Oscillatoria Filament

https://vimeo.com/149409517  Frontonia X600  With the large Dinoflagellate Gyrosigma

https://vimeo.com/147879552  Frontonia X600  Movement

 

https://vimeo.com/165352351  Frontonia X400

vii. Diatoms and Dinoflagellates as food sources

 

Numerous diatoms and dinoflagellates live in the Enteromorpha mat. They draw nutrients needed for growth from  pool water and manufacture their own food photosynthetically. A number of ciliates capture diatoms and dinoflagellates by forcing them into their “mouth”  and incorporating them into food vacuoles.

Green Alga Enteromorpha with diatoms X600 Marsh TP Pool April 24 2015.jpg

https://vimeo.com/168642110  Diatom(Gyrosigma and others) Movement X400

 

Diatoms belong to the Bacillariophyceae, a division of the Chrysophyta. Some are attached to algae such as Enteromorpha while others lie unattached on or in bottom sediments. The cell is protected by a cell wall (Frustule) impregnated with silicon (Silicon Dioxide). The frustule is made up of two halves (Valves) that fit together like the top and bottom of a shoe box. The valves are often adorned with fine lines. . In addition to the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and b.They have a golden brown pigment that gives them their characteristic color.

Photosynthetic diatoms and dinoflagellates are a major component of the Thomas Point marsh pool ecosystem throughout the spring, summer and early fall.

Diatoms Cymbella spp.jpg

 Diatom  Pinnularia X400Baybridge Intertidal 9 11 2014 bb.jpg

 

Dinoflagellates  are  unicellular and characterized by an equatorial groove shown in the following  photograph.

 

Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium X600 TP Pool April 24 2015 a (3)

 Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium Marsh Pool TB July 17 2015

Flagellate Amphidinium X1000 TP Marsh Pool April 5  2016

There are two flagella. The first lies in the equatorial groove and encircles the cell. When it beats. it  causes the cell to spin. The second flagellum (Trailing Flagellum), also attached in the groove, extends out into the water column  . It can be seen in the video below, lashing back and forth (Look Carefully). The combined action of both flagella cause the cell to move erratically. Dinoflagellates have the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and b as well as accessory pigments (Carotenoids and Xanthophylls). Certain species are harmful, forming toxic blooms (Red Tide for example). Both Amphidinium and Gymnodinium  are abundant from spring to early fall.

 

https://vimeo.com/24797751  Gymnodinium X600

viii. Ciliates that Feed on Diatoms and Dinoflagellates

 

a. Trochilia

 

Ciliate Trochilia X600 4

Trochilia is a small ciliate shaped like a ” mouse” with a rounded posterior end and a pointed anterior end. The anterior mouth  is surrounded internally by a basket (nasse) of contractile micro-tubules. Trochilia has a short, foot-like appendage (Podite) at the posterior end. The podite allows the ciliate to temporarily attach to Enteromorpha (Green alga) filaments while they feed on small epiphytic diatoms. In the following video (1:40) , Trochilia moves up and down the algal filaments using its ventral cilia and when it finds a suitable single diatom, Trochilia detaches the alga at the point of attachment and pulls it, base first inside the cell with the help of contractile microtubules. Use the entire screen to view the video.

https://vimeo.com/149428089 (Trochilia)

 

b. Condylostoma

 

Ciliate Condylostoma X600 TP Marsh Lower Marshpool 9 27 2015 (5)

Condylostoma is a relatively large ciliate with an anterior ciliated trough that leads to the mouth. The specimen in the video below has consumed a number of dinoflagellates.

 

https://vimeo.com/147194570

(Condylostoma)

 

https://vimeo.com/187673333  Condylostoma X400 Oscillatoria

Condylosoma attempts to ingest a filament of the blue-green bacterium Oscillatoria

 

c. Holophyra

 

Ciliate Holophyra X600 Marsh Pool TB July 29 2015 (4)

Holophyra, about 300 microns long, is uniformly ciliated. The mouth (Cytostome) is located at the tip of the anterior end. When the animal feeds, the mouth widens as shown in the video, They also feed on smaller prey as indicated by the presence of small food vacuoles containing relatively small particles.

The barrel-shaped ciliate Holophyra in the first video consumes a dinoflagellate. They also feed on diatoms, some as long as the cell itself, and small invertebrates. In the second and third videos Holophyra is feeding on a dead copepod.

 

https://vimeo.com/147899398  Holophyra feeding on Amphididium X600

https://vimeo.com/147899388 (Holophyra)

https://vimeo.com/149409509 (Holophyra)

https://vimeo.com/149409540 (Holophyra)

ix. Ciliates that feed on multicellular Organisms (Predators)

 

a. Litonotus

 Ciliate Litonotus X400  X600 Best TP Pool April 24 2015l (4)

Litonotus has a sac-like body with a relatively short, narrow neck. The somatic cilia are arranged in parallel rows. The neck is not as flexible and extensible as that in Lacrymaria. The mouth is located on the anterior, convex, lateral surface and is equipped with extrusomes that produce a substance toxic to prey. Two round macronucleii are visible inside the cell. A single contractile vacuole is situated at the posterior end . Litonotus is an active predator known to feed on other ciliates such as Euplotes as well as other protozoans. Watch Litonotus consume Euplotes in the video below.

 

https://vimeo.com/150289604    Litonotus feeding on Euplotes X600

 

https://vimeo.com/148640615  Litonotus X600

 

b. Amphileptus

 

 Ciliate Amphileptus X600 T P Marsh Mid Pool 9 27 2015 (4)

Amphileptus, a common ciliate in salt marsh pools, is about 100 microns long. It is somewhat pear-shaped, narrowing towards the anterior end. The pointed anterior curves slightly to one side and the mouth, a thin slit, is located on its convex surface. The cell is uniformly ciliated with rows of cilia (Kineties) on the upper right side converging towards the center line. The free-swimming ciliate is flattened from right to left. The ciliated flat left surface generally maintains contact with the substratum and the animal glides along smoothly, propelled by cilia. The rounded, hump-shaped, right surface is raised upward. Amphileptus twists and turns as it moves forward sometimes spiraling as it forces its way between clumps of detritus. Two, relatively large macronuclei are located towards the middle of the cell and a single contractile vacuole lies posteriorly. Amphileptus appears to feed by spirally “drilling” into or between clumps of detritus containing bacteria, small algal cells and rotifers. The dinoflagellate Amphidinium is commonly found in food vacuoles of this genus. Also, the video below shows Amphileptus consuming the rotifer Encentrum.

 

 

https://vimeo.com/168573015  Amphileptus feeding on the rotifer Encentrum X600

 

c. Acineta

 Acineta belongs to a group of ciliates (Suctoria) that have lost all cilia during early development and are permanently attached to the substratum by means of a non-contractile stalk. The cell body, about 60 microns in diameter has numerous, long, tubular tentacles each with a rounded tip where the mouth is located. Tentacles capture prey (Ciliates, flagellates, small rotifers, etc.) and  immediately immobilize them. At that point suctorians suck out the insides of their prey through one of their many mouths. This process is shown in the video of Acineta below.

 Acineta

 

Suctoria Acineta Feeding X600 Maquoit Pool May 15 2016 (2)

https://vimeo.com/169786790  Acineta X600

 

 c. Movement

 

Ciliates are grouped into the following four categories depending on where they spend most of their time : 1.Those that are attached to the substratum; 2. Those that crawl on the substratum; 3. Those that swim freely in the water column; and 4. Those that live within bottom sediments. Many ciliates that crawl on the bottom are capable of occasionally swimming freely in the water column or moving into sediments to feed. Conversely, free swimming genera may move towards the bottom to feed and embedded genera may leave bottom sediments to move to a new location.

 

i. Ciliates that are attached to the substratum

The following genera are included in this group: Calyptotricha (normally lives within an attached lorica),Cothurnia, Eutintinnus,Vorticella and Zoothamnion

 

Examples:

 

a. Zoothamnion

 Ciliate Zoothamnion Good X600 TP Marsh Pool April 30  2016  (3)

Vorticella and Zoothamnion are bell-shaped ciliates that are attached to the substratum by contractile stalks.Vorticella has a single cell attached to the end of the stalk, while Zoothamnion has a dichotomously branched stalk with a cell at the tip of each branch. The stalk has a centrally located contractile thread (Spasmoneme) that can pull the individual or colony downward quickly, out of harms way. In Vorticella, contraction of the spasmoneme causes the stalk to form a coil. When the spasmoneme relaxes, the stalk uncoils and extends upward.They are characterized by an oral ciliated membrane that starts in the oral cavity and winds spirally in a counter clock wise direction to a point along the edge of the area that surrounds the mouth. There are no somatic cilia on the cell body. After contraction the individual or colony extends outward and resumes feeding.

 

https://vimeo.com/114373294 Zoothamnion Colony Movement X400

https://vimeo.com/114373292 Zoothamnion Colony Movement X100

 

b. Vorticella

 

Ciliate Vorticella spp

Vorticella has a single cell attached to the end of a contractile stalk The stalk has a centrally located contractile thread that can pull the individual or colony downward quickly, out of harms way. They are characterized by an oral ciliated membrane that starts in the oral cavity and winds spirally in a counter clock wise direction to a point along the edge of the area that surrounds the mouth. There are no somatic cilia on the cell body. After contraction the individual or colony extends outward and resumes feeding.

 

 

https://vimeo.com/153027504  Vorticella Movement

 

c. Cothurnia

 

Ciliate Cothernia X600 TP Pool April 24 2015l  (3)

Cothurnia, a sessile ciliate that lives in a stalked lorica ,is usually attached to an algal filament (Enteromorpha in this case). It can extend the ciliary crown out of the open end of the lorica when it feeds and withdraws into it when threatened. Cilia form a wreath around the anterior end. The cell body lacks cilia. Small particles, mainly bacteria, are drawn toward the mouth by the crown of beating cilia.

 

https://vimeo.com/147844059 Cothurnia X600

ii. Ciliates that crawl on the substratum.

Approximately half of the ciliate genera indentified in this study are crawlers of one sort or another. They include the following genera: Amphileptus, Aspidisca, Chaenea, Chlamydodon, Cohnilembus, Cinetochilum, Climacostomum, Cryptopharynx, Dysteria, Euplotes,Frontonia, Holophyra, Litonotus, Loxodes, Loxophyllum, Oxytricha, Peritromis, Pseudomicrothorax, Siroloxophyllum, Tachysoma, , Trochilia, .and Uronychia.

 

i. Ciliates with an adoral zone of membranelles(AZM) and ventral cirri.

They include the following genera: Aspidisca, Euplotes, Oxytricha, Tachysoma and Uronychia.

 

Examples:

 

a. Euplotes

 

Ciliate Euplotes X600 Green Point High Intertidal 9 22 2014 (4)

 Ciliate Euplotes X600 Green Point High Intertidal 9 22 2014 (3).jpg

Ciliate Euplotes Ventral X600 Marsh Pool Mid TP 8 7  2015

 Ciliate Euplotes.jpg

 Ciliate Euplotes X600.jpg

Euplotes, about 50 microns long, has an adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) ,with large cilia that pull water beneath the cell towards the mouth. Suspended particles are removed from the water and pass to the cell interior. The ventral surface of the cell is flattened while the dorsal surface is rounded (Convex). They feed on detritus, bacteria, small protozoans, etc. Euplotes has thick ventral cirri, visible in the videos, that allow them to walk on the substratum. 4-6 posterior, caudal cirri extend posteriorly from the ventral surface.

 

https://vimeo.com/114831678 Euplotes X600

 

https://vimeo.com/168643988  Euplotes Movement  X600

 

Note the use of the ventral cirri as Euplotes crawls on the underside of a coverglass.

 

 

https://vimeo.com/187673404  Euplotes X600 Movement

 

b. Oxytricha

 

Ciliate Oxytricha spp

Oxytricha has an anterior adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) on the right side and an undulating membrane on the left. Both create water movement drawing small and medium size particles (Detritus, bacteria, diatoms and small protozoans, etc.) towards the mouth (Cytostome) where they may be consumed. Oxytricha has two marginal rows of cirri that are continuous around the posterior end of the cell. Other cirri however are not arranged in rows. Cirri on the ventral surface allow the animal to “walk” on the substratum. As the ciliates move forward they may suddenly jerk backwards and then move forward again. This process may be repeated again and again.

 

https://vimeo.com/148720662 Oxytricha X600

 

ii. Ciliates with a slit-like mouth along the anterior-lateral edge of the cell.

The following genera belong in this group: Litonotus, Loxodes ,Loxophyllum, and Siroloxophyllum .

Examples:

 

a. Litonotus

 

 Ciliate Litonotus X400  X600 Best TP Pool April 24 2015l (4)

Litonotus has a sac-like body with a relatively short, narrow neck. The somatic cilia are arranged in parallel rows. The neck is not as flexible and extensible as that in Lacrymaria. The mouth is located on the anterior, lateral, covex surface and is is equipped with extrusomes that produce a substance toxic to prey. Two round macronucleii are visible inside the cell. A single contractile vacuole is situated at the posterior end . Litonotus is an active predator known to feed on other ciliates such as Euplotes as well as other protozoans (View the first video). They move smoothly through the water column and in and around debris, propelled by rows of somatic cilia. Litonotus frequently reverses direction . The narrower anterior end waves slightly from side to side as they move forward.

 

https://vimeo.com/150289604   Litonotus feeding on Euplotes X600

https://vimeo.com/148640615     Litonotus Anatomy X600

b. Loxophyllum

 

 Ciliate Loxophyllum X400 T P Marsh Mid Pool 9 27 2015

Loxophyllum has a series of warts along the aboral edge of the ciliate. The warts, visible above, are sometimes difficult to find. The macronucleus consists of a series of inter-connected round beads. There may be several, round, clear contractile vacuoles. The mouth is a lateral slit (Hard to see) along the outer anterior convex edge. Loxophyllum glides forward propelled by cilia on the left side; they can move backwards as well as turn in any direction. They sometimes push their pointed anterior end into clumps of detritus and then twist and glide over the top, keeping the mouth close to the food laden debris. The raised right surface faces upward. They feed for the most part on small multi-cellular invertebrates.

 

https://vimeo.com/148653105 Loxophyllum X600

iii. Ciliates with a ventral mouth surrounded by micro-tubular rods.

The following genera belong to this group:Chlamydodon,Lacrymaria and Pseudomicrothorax.

 

Example :Chlamydodon

 

Ciliate Chlamydodon X600 lNewMarsh Pool TB June 22 2015

Chlamydodon has a ventral mouth located anteriorly that is surrounded internally by micro-tubular rods (Nematodesmata) that draw food inward. A cross-banded strip lies around the edge, just beneath the cell membrane. Diatoms seem to be the food of choice. Some of these ciliates are filled with symbiotic green unicellular algae. Note the posterior red eye-spot  The dorso-ventrally flattened cell body is able to bend over clumps of detritus placing the ventral mouth closer to food. Somatic ventral cilia propel the animal forward, backward and from side to side.

https://vimeo.com/147191339 Chlamydodon X600

 

C. Genera that swim in the water column:

Caenomorphaa, Coleps, Colpidium,Condylostoma, Cristigera, Cyclidium,Lepidotracheophyllum, Mesodinium, Nassula, Pleuronema, Pseudomicrothorax, Spirostomum, Strombidium, Tetrahymena and Trachelius.

 

Example: Pleuronema

 

Ciliate Pleuronema X600 Best  TP Pool April 24 2015l  (3)vv

Pleuronema is a close relative of Cyclidium. The somatic cilia are relatively long and stand straight out from the cell surface. They remain motionless while they feed. A relatively large, transparent undulating membrane is extended from the cell body during the feeding process and it circulates water containing food towards the mouth. They filter-feed on a variety of small organisms such as bacteria, algae, small protozoans, etc. After they have finished feeding, the long cilia quickly move them to a new spot where they unfurl the undulating membrane and feed again.

 

https://vimeo.com/148737306 Pleuronema X600

 

iii. Genera that live embedded in bottom sediments: Lacrymaria and Phialina.

 

Example: Lacrymaria

 

Ciliate Lacrymaria spp

Lacrymaria, about 450 microns long, has a sac-like body with an extensible neck. The mouth (Cytostome) is situated at the tip of the neck. Organelles called extrusomes, located here, release a toxin that kills or quiets prey making them easier to ingest. The ciliate spends most of its time embedded in debris moving its neck back and forth in search of food. The neck may be extended to about twice body length . Somatic cilia are arranged in oblique rows that are most evident on the posterior part of the cell. They feed for the most part on detritus, bacteria, and small protozoans.

 

https://vimeo.com/147903190 Lacrymaria X600

 

d.  Descriptions of Ciliate Genera

 

i. General Information:

 

Videos (1790×1327) were filmed through a trinocular compound (Nikon Eclipse E200 ) microscope with a C-Mount Digital ToupTek Camera (USB3 CMOS 10000K PA) equipped with a 10 Mega pixel chip at about 24 frames per second. The videos were saved in the MV B formatThe videos were posted on VIMEO and their codes are embedded in the manuscript so that they can be accessed directly from the Vimeo web site. Simply double click on the embedded code and the video will be retrived. Still photographs (3584×2746) were taken using the same setup described above.. Organisms were identified to Genus whenever possible, using the keys listed below as well as other resources.

Jahn, T.L., E.C. Bovee and F.F. Jahn . 1978. How to Know the Protozoa. 2nd Edition. Wm.C . Brown Co,, Dubuque Iowa, 279 pp.

Patterson, D.J., 1996. Free-Living Freshwater Protozoa, a color guide. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 223 pp.

Pennak, R.W, 1991. Fresh-Water Invertebrates of the United States. Protozoa to Mollusca.Third Edition. Wiley Interscience, New York, 628 pp.

The Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. 2000., 2nd Edition. Volumes 1 and 2 . Society of Protozoologists.Allen Press, Lawrence Kansas.

Thorp, J.H. and A.P., Covich, Eds. Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates 2010. Third Edition. Chapter 3 ,Protozoa (W. Taylor and R.W. Sanders), Pages 49-90. Elsevier (Academic Press), New York.

 

ii. List of Ciliate Genera:

 

  1. Amphileptus Class Litostomata Subclass Haptoria

  2. Aspidisca Class Spirotricha Sub-Class Hypotrichia

  3. Caenomorpha Family: CaenomorphidaeClass: Intramacronucleata

  4. Calyptotricha Class Oligohymenophora Subclass Scuticociliata

  5. Chaenea Class Listomatea Sub-Class Haptoria

  6. Chlamydodon Class Phyllopharyngea Sub-Class Phyllopharyngia

  7. Cinetochilum Class Oligohymenophorea Sub Class Scuticociliata

  8. Cohnilembus Subclass Scuticociliatia Family Cohnilembidae

  9. Coleps Class Prostomatea Order Prorodontida

  10. Colpidium Class Oligohymenophorea Sub-Class Hymenostomata

  11. Condylostoma Subclass Heterotricha Sub-Class Heterotrichea

  12. Cothurnia Class Oligohymenophora Sub-Class Peritricha

  13. Cristigera Class Oligohymenophorea Sub-Class Scuticociliata

  14. Cryptopharynx Class Karyorelictea Order Loxodida

  15. Cyclidium Class Oligohymenophora Sub-Class Scuticociliata

  1. Dysteria Class Oligohymenophora Sub-Class Scuticociliata

  2. Euplotes Class Spirotricha Sub-Class Hypotrichia

  3. Eutintinnus Class Spirotrichea Sub-Class Choreotrichia

  4. Frontonia Class Oligohymenophorea Sub-Class Peniculia

  1. Holophyra Class Prostomatea Sub-Class Holophyridae

  2. Lacrymaria Class Litostomatea Sub-Class Haptoria

  3. Lepidotrachelophyllum Class Listostomatea Sub-Class Haptoria

  4. Litonotus Class Litostomatea Sub-Class Haptoria

  5. Loxodes Class Karyorelictea Sub-Class Loxodida

  6. Loxophyllum Class Listostomatea Sub-Class Haptoria

  7. Mesodinium Class Litostomatea Sub-Class Haptoria

  8. Nassula Class Nassophorea Order Nassulida

  9. Oxytricha Class Spirotrichea Sub-Class Stichotrichia

  10. Paruroleptus Class Spirotricha Sub-Class Hypotrichia

  11. Peritromis Class Heterotrichea Order Heterotrichida

  12. Phialina Class Litostomatea Sub-Class Trichostomatia

  1. Pleuronema Class Oligohymenophora Sub-Class Scuticociliata

  2. Pseudomicrothorax Class Nassophorea Family Microthoracidae

  3. Siroloxophyllum Class Litosomatea Sub-Class Haptoria

  4. Spirostomum Ciliate Class Heterotricha, Subclass Heterotrichea

  5. Strombidium Class Spirotrichia Subclass Oligotrichia

  6. Tachysoma Class Spirotricha Subclass Stichotricha

  7. Tetrahymena Class Oligohymenophorea Subclass Hymenostomatia

  1. Trachelius Class Listomatea Subclass Trichostomatia

  2. Trochilia Class Phyllopharyngea Subclass Phyllopharyngia

  3. Uronychia Class Spirotrichia Subclass Hypotrichia

  4. Vaginicola Class Oligohymenophorea Sub-Class Peritricha

  5. Vorticella Class Oligohymenophorea Subclass Peritrichia

  6. Zoothamnion Class Oligohymenophorea Subclass Peritrichia

 

iii. Descriptions of Ciliate Genera:

 

1. Amphileptus

Class Litostomata  Subclass Haptoria

 

Ciliate Amphileptus X600 T P Marsh Mid Pool 9 27 2015 (4)

Amphileptus, a common ciliate in salt marsh pools, is about 100 microns long. It is somewhat pear-shaped, narrowing towards the anterior end. The pointed anterior curves slightly to one side and the mouth, a thin slit, is located on its convex surface. The cell is uniformly ciliated with rows of cilia (Kineties) on the upper right side converging towards the center line. The free-swimming ciliate is flattened from right to left. The ciliated flat left surface generally maintains contact with the substratum and the animal glides along smoothly, propelled by cilia. The rounded, hump-shaped, right surface is raised upward. Amphileptus twists and turns as it moves forward sometimes spiraling as it forces its way between clumps of detritus. Two, relatively large macronuclei are located towards the middle of the cell and a single contractile vacuole lies posteriorly. Amphileptus appears to feed by spirally “drilling” into or between clumps of detritus containing bacteria, small algal cells and rotifers. The dinoflagellate Amphidinium is commonly found in food vacuoles of this genus.Also, the last video shows Amphileptus capturing the rotifer Encentrum.

 

https://vimeo.com/147135872  Amphileptus X600

https://vimeo.com/147139086  Amphileptus X600

 

https://vimeo.com/168573015  Amphileptus feeding on the rotifer Encentrum X600

 

2. Aspidisca

Class Spirotricha  Sub-Class Hypotrichia

 Ciliate Aspidisca X600 TP Pool May 6 2015v Use

 Ciliate Aspidisca X1000 TP Marsh Pool March 20 2016

Aspidisca, about 50 microns long, is one of the most abundant ciliates in almost all of the samples collected from April to September. They literally “walk” over the substratum using the fronto-ventral (labeled Ventral) and transverse cirri. The fronto-ventral cirri are more active than transverse cirri and seem to be mainly responsible for movement. In the first video, Aspidisca walks along an Oscillatoria filament filament in search of food. They move over clumps of detritus, then stop for a short time, twitch, and move again. Movement appears to be random. The cell body is inflexible and has four longitudinal dorsal ridges that extend from anterior to posterior. They have an adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) mounted on a stalk (not visible). The AZM is moved over the substratum collecting bacteria, detritus, small protozoans, etc. Bacteria appear to be its main source of food.

 

 

https://vimeo.com/147143465   Aspidisca X600

https://vimeo.com/147143458  Aspidisca X600 Walking

https://vimeo.com/147143476   Aspidisca Ventral Cirri X600

https://vimeo.com/161385725  Aspidisca X1000

 

3. Caenomorpha

 

Class: Intramacronucleata  Family: Caenomorphidae,

 

Ciliate Caenomorpha  X600 8 TP Pool April 24 2015 (3)

 

Caenomorpha, about 75 microns long, was found only once in the spring, however because of its unusual morphology I decided to include it here. It has a prominent adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) that extends along the edge of the cell body. The posterior end is drawn out into a spike. A diatom is located inside the cell. The ciliate is dorsoventrally flattened and has a dorsal hump.

 

https://vimeo.com/147146946 Caenomorpha X600

 

 

4. Calyptotricha

Class Oligohymenophora  Subclass Scuticociliata

 

Normally this small ciliate (about 30 microns long) lives within a secreted lorica. It must have become dislodged during collection. It has a well-developed undulating membrane made up of long cilia fused together to form a single transparent sheet,that moves water towards the mouth during feeding bouts. It is typically pear-shaped with a relatively narrow anterior. Calyptotricha is relatively rare in the marsh pool; however it may have been overlooked because of its small size. They mainly filter feed on bacteria.

 

The undulating membrane is best viewed towards the middle of the video.https://vimeo.com/147188756  Calyptotricha X600

 

5. Chaenea

Class Listomatea  Sub-Class Haptoria

 

 Ciliate Chaenea X600  Marsh Pool TB May 28 2015

Chaenea, about 90 microns long, is uniformly ciliated and round in cross section. It tapers towards the relatively stiff anterior end. The apical mouth is located at the tip of a short, round extension (snout) . The snout is surrounded by a wreath of cilia. A single contractile vacuole is located in the posterior part of the cell. It can move forward rapidly in a straight line as well as turn to the right or left and reverse direction. The cell body is flexible. When the ciliate encounters a chunk of detritus  it extends its anterior end into the detritus using it as a probe presumably trying to locate food. Chaenea is a predator, feeding on small ciliates such as Cyclidium and other small protozoans. Movement appears to be random.

 

https://vimeo.com/147188761  Chaenea X600

https://vimeo.com/147188763  Chaenea X600

 

https://vimeo.com/160139553  Chaenea X600

 

 

 

6. Chlamydodon

Class Phyllopharyngea  Sub-Class Phyllopharyngia

 

Ciliate Chlamydodon X600 lNewMarsh Pool TB June 22 2015

Chlamydodon, about 90 microns long, has a mouth located ventrally near the anterior end that is surrounded internally by micro-tubular rods (Nematodesmata) that draw food inward. A cross-banded strip lies around the ciliate just beneath the cell membrane. The dorso-ventrally flattened cell body is able to bend over clumps of detritus, placing the ventral mouth closer to food. Somatic ventral cilia propel the animal forward, backward and from side to side. Diatoms seem to be the food of choice; however they also consume filamentous blue green bacteria. Some but not all of these ciliates are filled with symbiotic green unicellular algae. Note the red eye-spot located near the posterior end of the cell.

 

https://vimeo.com/150448707  Chlamydodon X600

https://vimeo.com/147191339  Chlamydodon X600

7. Cinetochilum

 

Class Oligohymenophorea  Sub Class Scuticociliata

Cinetochilium, about 30 microns long, has a small slit-like, ventral mouth near the anterior end. Cilia are uniformly distributed except for several longer cilia and one trailing cilium that is longer than the rest, both located at the posterior end. One round macro-nucleus is visible in the center of the cell and one contractile vacuole is located near the posterior end. Often numbers of them participate in a “group dance”. Most face upward while rotating on their central, anterior-posterior longitudinal axis. They sometimes rotate from left to right and then reverse direction. At the same time, they wobble from side to side. They are abundant throughout the spring and summer. They appear to be filter feeding on bacteria.

 

https://vimeo.com/147191350  Cinetochilum X600

https://vimeo.com/153617734  Cinetochilum X600

https://vimeo.com/147191353  Cinetochilum X600

https://vimeo.com/147191347  Cinetochilum X600

 

8. Cohnilembus

Subclass Scuticociliatia  Family Cohnilembidae

 

cohnilembus 12

 Ciliate Cohnilembus X600 T P Marsh Mid Pool 9 27 2015

Conhnilembus, about 60 microns long, has a thin body that tapers anteriorly. The cell is uniformly covered by somatic cilia. Cilia at the posterior end are slightly longer than those on the cell body. Several, relatively long, bent cilia are present at the tip of the narrow anterior end. One row of buccal cilia lies on each side of an oral groove that leads to the mouth at about the middle of the body where the mouth (cytosome) and cytopharynx are located. A long, transparent undulating membrane,made up of long cilia fused together to form a single transparent sheet, extends from the anterior end to the middle of the body. A line of curved cilia lie alongside the undulating membrane. It often moves forward in a straight line, stops to feed and then moves again to a new location. It moves like Cyclidium, but not as fast. A contractile vacuole is located at the posterior end. They filter feed for the most part on bacteria.

 

https://vimeo.com/116174236  Cohnilembus X600

 

9. Coleps

Class Prostomatea  Order Prorodontida

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coleps

 

Coleps

Coleps, about 80 microns long, is covered by external plates  secreted by the cell. The barrel-shaped cell body is uniformly ciliated; Cilia protrude through the calcium carbonate plates along visible longitudinal lines. Small spikes surround the anterior and posterior poles. A group of cilia surround the mouth. As the ciliates move forward they rotate from left to right or the opposite way, around their central anterior-posterior longitudinal axis. They also can move forward and backward without rotating. They often push their anterior end into chunks of debris containing bacteria and small algal cells moving slightly from side to side. Oral cilia move dislodged material into the mouth. Micro-tubular rods (not seen) form a circular channel from just below the mouth into the cell interior. They also are attracted to and feed on dead and dying organisms. A single contractile vacuole lies near the posterior end. Coleps is abundant throughout spring and summer. Food vacuoles may contain detritus, bacteria , small algal cells and diatoms.

https://vimeo.com/147193035 Coleps X600 Feeding on Detritus

https://vimeo.com/151706618 Coleps X600 Movement. Note the two diatoms inside Coleps.

 

10. Colpidium

Class Oligohymenophorea  Sub-Class Hymenostomata

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colpidium_colpoda

 

 Colpidium 2 X600

There is an indentation below the anterior part of the cell where the mouth is located. It is most evident in the first video where oral cilia create water currents that bring small particles towards the mouth. Bacteria seem to be the main source of food. The laterally flattened cell body, about 40 microns long, is rounded, pear-shaped, and uniformly ciliated. The front part of the cell is extended slightly to the side.  A single contractile vacuole lies in the center of the cell. The cell body of most specimens is filled with food vacuoles.

 

https://vimeo.com/147194541  Colpidium X600

https://vimeo.com/147194535  Colpidium X600

 

11. Condylostoma

Class Heterotricha  Sub-Class Heterotrichea

 

Ciliate Condylostoma X600 TP Marsh Lower Marshpool 9 27 2015 (5)

Condylostoma, one of the largest ciliates, is about 400 microns long. It is characterized by a long shovel-shaped, ciliated, anterior extension (Peristome). The elongate, extremely flexible cell body is uniformly ciliated (Somatic Cilia). An Adoral Zone of Membranelles (AZM) curves around the front of the cell from left to right. A large Undulating Membrane ,made up of long cilia fused together to form a single transparent sheet, lies on the opposite side (Right) of the AZM . Both of these structures create water movement towards the mouth that is located just posterior to the end of the AZM. The ciliate moves the shovel-like peristome into clumps of detritus, shaking loose small particles that are transported to the mouth. The flexible body can move forward, backward and to the sides. Bacteria, blue green bacteria (Oscillatoria), diatoms both large and small, dinoflagellates (Amphidinium and Gymnodinium) , and detritus have been found in food vacuoles. There are two types of Condylostoma, one elongate and one shorter and wider (Type 2).

 

https://vimeo.com/147194587  Condylostoma X600

https://vimeo.com/147194570  Condylostoma X600

https://vimeo.com/147194563   600X Condylostoma Type 2

 

https://vimeo.com/187673333  Condylostoma X400 Oscillatoria

Condylosoma tries to ingest a filament of the blue-green bacterium Oscillatoria.

 

12. Cothurnia

Class Oligohymenophora  Sub-Class Peritricha

 

Ciliate Cothernia X600 TP Pool April 24 2015l  (3)

Cothurnia, about 70 microns long, is a sessile ciliate that lives in a stalked lorica which is usually attached to an algal filament (Enteromorpha in this case). Cilia form a wreath around the anterior end. A single contractile vacuole is situated anteriorly. The cell body lacks cilia. Small particles, mainly bacteria, are drawn toward the mouth by the crown of beating cilia. Some are pushed into the mouth and directed into the buccal cavity. Here a balloon-shaped food vacuole is formed from the cell membrane at the base of the buccal cavity as bacteria are packed in. Within a short time, when the vacuole is filled with food, it pinches off and circulates within the cell body. Lysosomes containing digestive enzymes fuse with the food vacuoles and digestion takes place. The process except for digestion can be seen clearly in the following videos:

 

https://vimeo.com/147844059  Cothurnia X600

https://vimeo.com/147844087  Cothurnia X600

 

13. Cristigera

Class Oligohymenophorea  Sub-Class Scuticociliata

 

cristigera23

 Ciliate Cristigera  Type 2 X600 Marsh Pool TB July 17 2015

 

Cristigera, about 25 microns long, has a well-developed undulating membrane made up of long cilia fused together to form a single transparent sheet that waves continuously when the animal is stationary, moving food towards the mouth. The ciliate feeds for the most part on bacteria. The anterior is  extended slightly forward with a wreath of relatively long cilia circling the junction where the anterior extension joins the cell body. Other long cilia are sparsely distributed on the cell body. After a feeding bout the animal moves quickly (“hops”) to a new location, remains stationary ,unfurls the undulating membrane, and feeds again. They filter feed for the most part on bacteria.

 

https://vimeo.com/147844180  Cristigeria X600

 

14. Cryptopharynx

Class Karyorelictea  Order Loxodida

 

 Ciliate Cryptopharynx X600 Marsh Pool TB July 17 2015

Cryptopharynx, about 85 microns long, has a flask-shaped body with a rounded mouth twisted to the right just below the anterior tip of the cell. A circle of small rods, micro tubules, surrounds the mouth. The ciliated ventral surface is flattened while a raised dorsal rounded hump points posteriorly. The animal glides forward on its ventral, flat surface, navigating around clumps of debris. The mouth is generally directed towards debris. It can also move from side to side and backwards. Round green and golden brown algal cells have been observed inside the cell.

 

https://vimeo.com/147848447  Cryptopharynx X600

https://vimeo.com/147848384  Cryptopharynx X600

https://vimeo.com/147848501  Cryptopharynx X600

https://vimeo.com/147848547  Cryptopharynx X600

 

15. Cyclidium

 

Class Oligohymenophora  Sub-Class Scuticociliata

 

 Ciliate Cyclidium X600 NR  Marsh Pool TB July 17 2015

Cyclidium, about 20 microns long, is characterized by the presence of relatively long cilia that extend outward at a 90 degree angle from the cell surface. This is most evident when the ciliate is still,  during the feeding process. The cell body is evenly ciliated except for a slight depression towards the anterior end where a transparent sheet-like undulating membrane (Visible).  made up of long cilia fused together to form a single transparent. The sheet,extends above the cell surface during feeding bouts. The undulating motion of the membrane directs small particles (mostly bacteria) into the mouth where they incorporated into food vacuoles. If the ciliate is disturbed or stops feeding, they “dart” to a new location usually not far from where they started, and begin feeding again. A single long cilium protrudes from the posterior end. Cyclidium consumes bacteria for the most part. Although the feeding process is visible in this genus it can be seen with greater clarity in the anatomically similar Pleuronema.

 

https://vimeo.com/116176713  Cyclidium X600

 

https://vimeo.com/160152417  Cyclidium X600

 

https://vimeo.com/160152417  Cyclidium X600

 

https://vimeo.com/161385726  Cyclidium X1000

 

16. Dysteria

 

Class Oligohymenophora  Sub-Class Scuticociliata

 

Ciliate Dysteria X600 b TP Pool April 24 2015  (2)

 Cilia are restricted to the ventral surface; they are mainly responsible for movement. The unciliated dorsal surface is rounded. The ventral mouth is surrounded by a basket of rods that move food such as filamentous bacteria, into the cell.

 Dysteria ,about 45 microns long, has a toe-like adhesive spike (Podite) extending from the posterior end When the  podite is attached to the substratum it can be used to hold the ciliate in place while it feeds or as a pivot point that allows Dysteria to turn and change direction. I also have observed the podite move the animal either forward or backward a short distance.

Dysteria appears to feed mainly on the filamentous bacterium Beggiatoa. Initially  the ciliate  touches the elongated filament with its oral cilia, and then quickly  grabs the free end of the filament and bends it into a loop with the free end now pointing downward. Loops continue to form until the filament is completely ingested. The entire process can be viewed at:

https://vimeo.com/147853470  Dysteria X600

Here, Dysteria ingests a long, darkly colored, bacterial filament (Beggiatoa). At the very beginning of the video no filament is visible inside the cell. Within a short time (about 1:06) , the entire black filament is quickly drawn (“sucked”) internally through the mouth with the help of contractile micro-tubular rods. Dark, round, inclusions in some of the videos are digested remnants of Beggiatoa. There is a relatively large, rounded, macro-nucleus in the cell center as well as two clear contractile vacuoles.

 

https://vimeo.com/147853990  Dysteria X600

https://vimeo.com/147853487  Dysteria X600

https://vimeo.com/147853470  Dysteria X600

17. Euplotes

Class Spirotricha  Sub-Class Hypotrichia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euplotes

 

Ciliate Euplotes X600 Green Point High Intertidal 9 22 2014 (4)

 Ciliate Euplotes Ventral X600 Marsh Pool Mid TP 8 7  2015

ciliate-euplotes

Euplotes, about 50 microns long, has an adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) ,with large cilia that pull water beneath the cell towards the mouth. Suspended particles are removed from the water and pass into the cell interior. They feed on detritus, bacteria, small protozoans, etc. Water circulation is visible in some of the videos. The ventral surface of the cell is flattened and the dorsal surface is rounded (Convex). . The AZM also moves the rigid cell body forward when they travel through the water column. Euplotes has 4 frontal cirri that may have a sensory function, 9 thick ventral cirri, visible in the videos, that are used to walk on the substratum. 4-6 posterior, caudal cirri extend posteriorly from the ventral surface and 5 anal cirri are located at the posterior end; both of these groups seem to stabilize (balance) the cell body during movement.

https://vimeo.com/147870962 Euplotes X600

https://vimeo.com/147870928  Euplotes X600

https://vimeo.com/147871020  Euplotes X600

https://vimeo.com/114831678  Euplotes X600

https://vimeo.com/147870947  Euplotes X600

https://vimeo.com/114879025  Euplotes X600

 https://vimeo.com/187673404  Euplotes X600. One of the best videos.

 18. Eutintinnus

Class Spirotrichea  Sub-Class Choreotrichia

 

Ciliate Eutintinnus  TP Pool X600 4 24 2015 (6)

Eutintinnus, about 60 microns long, lives inside a transparent lorica, attached by a contractile thread to its inner surface. The vase-shaped lorica is open at both ends; The aboral end is attached to a solid surface such as the filamentous alga Enteromorpha.. The oral end is slightly flared and wider than the aboral end. The ciliate has a single ring of long oral cilia around the mouth. Beating cilia pull the anterior portion of the cell out of the lorica and then draw water containing bacteria, detritus, small algae, and other small protozoans towards the mouth and into the cytopharynx where a food vacuole is formed. When the ciliate is disturbed, the contractile thread shortens, pulling the animal back inside the protective lorica. In a short while, the ring of cilia moves the animal just beyond the rim of the lorica and feeding resumes.

 

https://vimeo.com/150815350  Eutintinnus X600

https://vimeo.com/147879513  Eutintinnus X600

https://vimeo.com/153283221  Eutintinnus X600

19. Frontonia

Class Oligohymenophorea  Sub-Class Peniculia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frontonia

 

Frontonia X400 b

Frontonia X400 a

Frontonia is a large (Approximately 400 microns long) oval, dorso-ventrally flattened ciliate with a single layer of vertical trichocysts just underneath the cell membrane. Trichocysts exude sticky filaments that help protect the ciliates from predators. The cell mouth is a small, anterior oval slit shown best in the second photograph. Frontonia feeds for the most part on diatoms and Oscillatoria filaments. A unique green inclusion body, with no known function, is visible in some of the animals. Micro-tubular rods are situated around the mouth. Frontonia is uniformly ciliated and glides smoothly from place to place. They sometimes rotate to the left or right on their central anterior-posterior longitudinal axis as they move forward.

 

https://vimeo.com/149409532  Frontonia X600 Mouth

https://vimeo.com/149409537  Frontonia X600 With Oscillatoria Filament

https://vimeo.com/149409517  Frontonia X600  With the Diatom Gyrosigma

https://vimeo.com/147879552  Frontonia X600  Movement

https://vimeo.com/165352351  Frontonia X400

 

20. Holophyra

Class Prostomatea  Sub-Class Holophyridae

 

Ciliate Holophyra X600 Marsh Pool TB July 29 2015 (4)

Holophyra X400 b Feeding on a dead copepod

Holophyra, about 300 microns long, is uniformly ciliated. The mouth (Cytostome) is located at the tip of the anterior end. When the animal feeds, the mouth widens as shown in the video, They also feed on smaller prey as indicated by the presence of small food vacuoles containing relatively small particles.

The barrel-shaped ciliate Holophyra ,in the first video below, consumes a dinoflagellate. They also feed on diatoms, some as long as the animal itself, and small invertebrates. In the second and third videos Holophyra is feeding on a dead copepod.

 

https://vimeo.com/147899398  Holophyra X600 Feeding

https://vimeo.com/147899408  Holophyra X600 Anatomy

https://vimeo.com/149409540  Holophyra X600 Feeding

https://vimeo.com/147899300  Holophyra X600 Attempting to Feed

 21. Lacrymaria

Class Litostomatea  Sub-Class Haptoria

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lacrymaria_(ciliate)

 

Ciliate Lacrymaria spp

Lacrymaria X400

Lacrymaria, about 450 microns long, has a sac-like body with an extensible neck. The fusiform body makes it easier to move into and between clumps of detritus. The mouth (Cytostome) is situated at the tip of the neck. Organelles called extrusomes, located here,release a toxin that kills or quiets prey making them easier to ingest. The ciliate spends most of its time embedded in debris moving its neck back and forth in search of food. The neck can be extended to about twice the length of the body. Somatic cilia are arranged in spiral rows that are most evident on the posterior part of the cell body. They feed for the most part on  small protozoans.

 

https://vimeo.com/160139508   Ciliate Lacrymaria 100X

https://vimeo.com/114159114  Lacrymaria X400

https://vimeo.com/74466814  Lacrymaria X400

https://vimeo.com/160174840   Lacrymaria  X400

https://vimeo.com/160152424 Lacrimaria X400

 

22. Lepidotrachelophyllum

Class Listostomatea  Sub-Class Haptoria

 

lepidotrachelophylum X600

Lepidotrachelophyllum, about 110 microns long, has a narrow elongate body that is round in cross section. The animal appears to live in the sediment. It often pulls back quickly and then pushes the thin anterior portion into clumps of detritus. This action is repeated frequently. The mouth is not visible. The mid portion of the cell is widened and tapers gradually towards the posterior end. The entire cell body is covered by small rounded scales.The ciliate feeds for the most part on small protozoans.

 

https://vimeo.com/148640586  Lepidotrachelophyllum X600

https://vimeo.com/148640603  Lepidotrachelophyllum X600

23. Litonotus

Class Litostomatea  Sub-Class Haptoria

 

Ciliate Litonotus spp

Litonotus, about 400 microns long, has a sac-like body with a relatively short, narrow neck. The somatic cilia are arranged in parallel rows. The neck is not as flexible or extensible as that in Lacrymaria. The mouth is located at the tip of the neck and is equipped with extrusomes that produce a substance toxic to prey. The ciliate often moves forward and then backward when they encounter a clump of detritus. The anterior end probes the area around them. Two round macronucleii are visible inside the cell. A single contractile vacuole is situated at the posterior end of the cell. Litonotus is an active predator known to feed on other protozoans. The first video  shows Litonotus feeding on a  much larger ciliate (Euplotes). Round green algal cells , one per vacuole also have also been observed.

 

https://vimeo.com/150289604  Litonotus X600 Feeding on Euplotes

https://vimeo.com/148640615  Litonotus X600 Anatomy Movement

https://vimeo.com/114170974  Litonotus X600 Conjugation

 24. Loxodes

Class Karyorelictea  Sub-Class Loxodida

 

 Ciliate Loxodes Yes X600 4

Loxodes, about 100 microns long, does not have a contractile vacuole. The crescent-shaped, flexible, flattened ciliate has a deeply indented sub terminal mouth. This is a key characteristic. Refractive internal spherules (Mullers Vesicles) are present. The animal is uniformly ciliated and has numerous small internal vacuoles. Feeding was not observed, however Loxodes is known to consume Oscillatoria, diatoms, small protozoans, and other small invertebrates.

 

https://vimeo.com/148640640  Loxodes X600

 

 

25. Loxophyllum

Class Listostomatea  Sub-Class Haptoria

 

Ciliate Loxophyllum X400 T P Marsh Mid Pool 9 27 2015

Loxophyllum, about 300 microns long, is flattened laterally (left and right sides) and has a series of warts along the aboral edge. The macro-nucleus consists of a series of inter -connected round beads. There may be several, round, clear contractile vacuoles. The mouth is a lateral slit (Hard to see) along the outer anterior convex edge. Well developed feeding cilia are absent. A long canal that is connected to the lateral contractile vacuole runs internally just inside the aboral edge. Loxophyllum glides forward propelled by cilia on the left side; they can move backwards and turn  in any direction. They sometimes push their pointed anterior end into clumps of detritus and then twist and glide over the top, keeping the mouth close to food laden detritus. The raised, right side, faces upward.. Feeding was not observed although Loxophyllum is said to prey on ciliates and rotifers.

 

https://vimeo.com/148653104  Loxophyllum X600 Anatomy Movement

https://vimeo.com/148653105  Loxophyllum X600 Anatomy Movement

 

26. Mesodinium

Class Litostomatea  Sub-Class Haptoria

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesodinium_rubrum

 Ciliate Mesodinium X600 arsh Pool TB July 17 2015

 

Mesodinium, about 20 microns long, is pear shaped with a mid-cell circular constriction. Short oral, bifurcating tentacles that can be withdrawn into the cell,protrude from the anterior end. There are two rings of long equatorial cilia. The first ring is directed upward and the second downward. The inflexible ciliate “jumps” from one place to another much like Halteria. When this occurs, the cilia in both rings push downward. One to several symbiotic red algal cells may be found internally. The red algal cells photosynthesize, providing food to their host.When the rounded posterior end faces upward, the ciliate resembles a heliozoan.

 

https://vimeo.com/160152423  Mesodinium X600

https://vimeo.com/148658029  Mesodinium X600

https://vimeo.com/148658025  Mesodinium X600

 

27. Nassula

Class Nassophorea  Order Nassulida

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nassula

 

Ciliate Nassula X600 New Pool near road TB 6 22 2015

Nassula, about 200 microns long is dorso-ventrally flattened and uniformly ciliated. Some of the specimens harbor a large number of what appear to symbiotic green algae.. The ventral mouth, located near the anterior end, is surrounded by a cylinder of micro-tubular rods that help draw in filamentous blue green bacteria such as Oscillatoria as shown on the first video.

 

The video (https://vimeo.com/149409555  Nassula X600

Feeding on Oscillatoria ) shows Nassula grabbing a straight Oscillatoria filament, bending it in half, and drawing it into the cell. As blue green algae are digested the pigments change color from blue green to red, purple and orange. The ciliate moves in a more or less straight line until it comes in contact with a clump of detritus. At this point Nassula often pushes its anterior into  debris presumably searching for food. They occasionally rotate around the central anterior-posterior longitudinal axis as they move forward.

 

https://vimeo.com/149409555  Nassula X600

  

 28. Oxytricha

Class Spirotrichea  Sub-Class Stichotrichia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxytricha

 

Ciliate Oxytricha spp

The dorso-ventrally flattened Oxytricha has an anterior adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) on the right side and an undulating membrane  made up of long cilia fused together to form a single transparent sheet,on the left. The undulating membrane creates water movement that draws small and medium size particles (Detritus, bacteria, diatoms and small protozoans, etc.) towards the mouth (Cytostome) where they may be consumed. The AZM extends from the mouth, along the left side and across the anterior end. The ciliate, about 150 microns long, has two marginal (along the edge) rows of cirri that are continuous around the posterior end. Other cirri however are not arranged in rows. Ventral cirri allow the animal to “walk” on the substratum. As the ciliates move forward they may suddenly jerk backwards and then move forward again. This process may be repeated again and again. The dorsal surface is somewhat rounded.

 

https://vimeo.com/148720662  Oxytricha X600

 

https://vimeo.com/148720658  Oxytricha X600

 

29. Paruroleptus

Class Spirotricha Sub-Class Hypotrichia

 

Ciliate Paruroleptus  spp, X400

 

Paruroleptus, about 350 microns long, has two straight rows of marginal (along the edge) cirri as well as two rows of mid-ventral cirri arranged in a zig-zag pattern. The flexible ciliate has an adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) that create water flow towards the mouth. After entering the mouth food particles are directed down to the base of the cytopharynx where a food vacuole is formed. They feed on bacteria, diatoms and small protozoans. The cell body narrows at the posterior end forming a sort of tail.

 

https://vimeo.com/160152426  Paruroleptus X600

 

 

30. Peritromus

Class Heterotrichea  Order Heterotrichida

 

Peritromus, about 100 microns long, has a well-developed adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) that curves across the anterior portion of the cell and ends at the mouth opening (Cytostome). The beating cilia in the AZM direct food toward the mouth and into a short, clear cytopharynx. A food vacuole forms as food is pushed against the end of the cytopharynx. Eventually when the food vacuole is filled with bacteria, it pinches off at the base and floats into the cytoplasm where digestion takes place. Petritromus feeds for the most part on bacteria. The ciliate glides over the substratum on its flattened, ciliated ventral surface. The dorsal portion of the cell is rounded and a single, clear perfectly round contractile vacuole lies at about the center of this structure. The dorsal hump may be smooth or have a scalloped edge. The AZM is responsible for moving the animal smoothly over the substratum.

 

https://vimeo.com/150371452  Peritromus X400 Dorsal, Movement

https://vimeo.com/150371462  Peritromus X600 Ventral, Movement and Anatomy

https://vimeo.com/150374291  Peritromus X600 Ventral, Movement and Anatomy

https://vimeo.com/148720674  Peritromus X600 Ventral Movement and Anatomy

https://vimeo.com/161385727  Peritromus X1000

 

31. Phialina

Class Litostomatea  Sub-Class Trichostomatia

https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phialina_pseudopuberula

 

Ciliate Phialina X600 T P Marsh Mid Pool 9 27 2015

Phialina , about 80 microns long, is closely related to Lacrymaria based on its possession of a “short” neck with a mouth at its tip , extrusomes associated with the round mouth, and the presence in this region of a wreath of relatively long cilia just below the cell tip. Extrusomes are cell organelles that release secretions that immobilize prey. The neck however is not.as long and active as that found on Lacrymaria. A contractile vacuole is situated at the posterior end and a single macro-nucleus is present. The rows of cilia spiral around the cell body. The ciliate moves quickly through debris, moving its short neck from side to side in what appears to be a search pattern. After a time, the animal may back out and move to a new location. Movement appears to be random. It can move forward, backward and bend from side to side.They feed for the most part on  small protozoans.

 

https://vimeo.com/150371459  Phialina X600

https://vimeo.com/148720769  Phialina X600

 https://vimeo.com/162381405  Phialina X600

 

32. Pleuronema

Class Oligohymenophora  Sub-Class Scuticociliata

 

Ciliate Pleuronema X600 TP Marsh Lower Marshpool 9 27 2015

Ciliate Pleuronema X600 Best  TP Pool April 24 2015l  (3)vv

Pleuronema , about 80 microns long, is a close relative of Cyclidium. The somatic cilia are relatively long and stand straight out from the cell surface while feeding. They remain motionless while they feed. A relatively large, transparent undulating membrane made up of long cilia fused together to form a single transparent sheet,is extended from the cell body during the feeding process.It circulates water containing food towards the mouth and into the cytopharynx and  into a food vacuole. Usually the vacuole fills with bacteria and eventually pinches off at its attached end and enters the cytoplasm where digestion takes place.

 

The entire process is clearly visible on the  video:

https://vimeo.com/148737306  Pleuronema X600

They filter feed on a variety of small organisms such as bacteria, algae, small protozoans, etc. After they have finished feeding, the long cilia quickly move them (jump/hop) to a new spot where they unfurl the undulating membrane and feed again.

 

https://vimeo.com/148737291  Pleuronema X600

 

33. Pseudomicrothorax

Class Nassophorea  Family Microthoracidae

 

Ciliate Pseudomicrothorax   X600 1 TP Pool April 24 2015 (6)

Ciliate  Pseudomicrothorax X600  Marsh Pool TB May 24h (19)

 Ciliate Pseudomicrothorax X400 T P Marsh Mid Pool 9 27 2015

Pseudomicrothorax, about 60 microns long, is dorsoventrally flattened and lacks an adoral zone of membranelles. There are about 15 longitudinal elevated rows of cilia (cortical ridges). One contractile vacuole is present near the posterior end. There is a ventral mouth with associated feeding cilia located about one third of body length from the anterior end.. The mouth is hidden by a fold of the outside cell covering (Pellicle). Two macronucleii are situated in the central part of the cell. Ventral cirri and an adoral zone of membranelles are lacking. They feed on blue green algae using a pharyngeal basket made of a number of micro-tubular rods. Some of the individuals were packed with food vacuoles containing small dinoflagellates (Amphidinium).

 

https://vimeo.com/150385602  Pseudomicrothorax X600

https://vimeo.com/150385600  Pseudomicrothorax X600

https://vimeo.com/148743910  Pseudomicrothorax X600

https://vimeo.com/148743898  Pseudomicrothorax X600

34. Siroloxophyllum

Class Litosomatea  Sub-Class Haptoria

 

Siroloxophyllum X600 c

Siroloxophyllum, about 200 microns long, is evenly ciliated on the right side. The left side lacks cilia and  has 5 thick  ridges that run the length of the animal. The center of the left side is raised dorsally. The animal is flexible and glides over the substratum on its right side. There are 5 macronucleii and about 2-3 contractile vacuoles. . Feeding was not observed, however a relatively long diatom was found inside one individual. Warts such as those found on Loxophyllum are lacking.

 

https://vimeo.com/148749957  Siroloxophyllum X600

 

 

35. Spirostomum

Ciliate Class Heterotricha  Subclass Heterotrichea

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirostomum

 

 Ciliate Spirostomum X100 Marsh Pool TB July 17 2015

Ciliate Spirostomum X600bMarsh Pool TP 7 17 2015

Spirostomum is a long, thin ciliate (Up to 1 mm in length) with a distinct, large, round, clear contractile vacuole at the posterior end. The anterior end of the cylindrical ciliate is narrower than the posterior. The uniformly ciliated cell body is extremely flexible as it navigates over and under obstacles in its path. The animal can move smoothly in a straight line as well as twist and turn as it navigates through debris. Often it will move forward a short distance and then backward and forward again. An adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) leads from the  anterior end to the cytostome (Cell Mouth) located where the narrow anterior abruptly widens (About 1/3 of the way towards the posterior end). The body is uniformly ciliated and rows of cilia are visible. The macro-nucleus, visible in some of the specimens, looks like a “string of sausages.” It appears to feed on detritus, bacteria and small protozoans.

https://vimeo.com/149418988  Spirostomum X100 Movement

https://vimeo.com/149418996  Spirostomum X600 Anatomy Movement

https://vimeo.com/149419000  Spirostomum X600  Anatomy Movement

https://vimeo.com/149419022  Spirostomum X500 Anatomy

 

 

36. Strombidium

Class Spirotrichia  Subclass Oligotrichia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strombidium_Lagenula

 

Ciliate Strombidium X600 Thomas Point Marsh Mid-Marsh Pool 7 29 2015 (3)

Strombidium, about 30 microns long, has a strongly developed adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) around the anterior end that is responsible for movement and feeding. When the cilia beat, the cell moves forward, swaying slightly from side to side. There is a basal sheath (lorica) around the posterior part of the cell. One contractile vacuole lies near the cell center. The ciliate feeds on bacteria, diatoms and small, round, green algal cells.

 

https://vimeo.com/149443532  Strombidium X600

37. Tachysoma

Class Spirotricha  Subclass Stichotricha

 

Ciliate Tachysoma X6004

Tachysoma, about 100 microns long, has a relatively rigid cell body with long, dorsal, thin, immobile Bristles. A small AZM forms a “collar” from left to right around the anterior of the cell body. Two marginal (Along the edges) rows of cirri are present that do not extend around the posterior end. Five transverse cirri are situated at the posterior end. A contractile vacuole is located at about the center of the cell. Both videos show the AZM, the 5 transverse cirri and the 2 marginal (Lateral) rows of cirri.

In the following video, the ciliate crawls along on an algal filament using its ventral cirri (not mentioned above). When the ciliates stop they often jerk backward, and then jerk forward. This type of movement is found in a number of hypotrich ciliates. They feed for the most part on bacteria.

 

https://vimeo.com/149443613  Tachysoma X600 Movement on Enteromorpha filament

https://vimeo.com/149443625  Tachysoma X600 Movement

https://vimeo.com/149443632  Tachysoma X600 Anatomy

38. Tetrahymena

Class Oligohymenophorea  Subclass Hymenostomatia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrahymena

 

Tetrahymena X600 Feeding on a dead copepod

Tetrahymena, about 40 microns in length, is pear-shaped and uniformly ciliated. The small mouth is located towards the anterior end. They are quickly attracted to dead, squashed invertebrates. In the video below the ciliate drills, head first, into the body of a dead copepod, feeding on small bits of cellular debris. They drill by rotating around the central, longitudinal anterior-posterior axis usually from left to right. A contractile vacuole is situated near the posterior end.

 

https://vimeo.com/150080561 Tetrahymena X600 Feeding on cellular debris from a dead copepod

https://vimeo.com/187673290  Trachelius  and Tetrahymena Feeding X600. Trapped in a dead arthropod appendage.

 

 

39. Trachelius

Class Listomatea  Subclass Trichostomatia

 

Trachelius X600

Trachelius, about 150 microns long, is distinguished by a short tapering neck and a round cell body. The round cell mouth (Cytostome) leads into a short tube (Cytopharynx) that ends internally. Food vacuoles are formed at the end of the cytopharynx. The Y-shaped structure (mouth and cytopharynx) are visible in the video below.

https://vimeo.com/81210133 (Zottoli) (Trachelius X400,) of a specimen collected in a local bog.

The animal rotates either left or right around its central anterior-posterior longitudinal axis. Feeding was not observed, however detritus, bacteria and small protozoans were observed in food vacuoles.

 

https://vimeo.com/114348067  Trachelius X100

https://vimeo.com/149443702 Trachelius X600

https://vimeo.com/150080568  Trachelius X600

https://vimeo.com/187673290  Trachelius  and Tetrahymena X600Feeding.  Trapped in a dead arthropod appendage.

 

40. Trochilia

Class Phyllopharyngea  Subclass Phyllopharyngia

Ciliate Trochilia X600 4

Ciliate Dysteria X600 4

Trochilia , about 30 microns long, is a small ciliate shaped like a “mouse” with a rounded posterior end and a pointed anterior end. The ventral surface is ciliated while the rounded dorsal surface lacks cilia. An adhesive spike (Podite) extends from the posterior end. The podite allows the ciliate to temporarily attach to Enteromorpha (Green alga) filaments while they feed on small epiphytic diatoms. The ventral mouth is located toward the anterior end and is surrounded internally by a basket (nasse) of contractile micro- tubules. Diatoms are attached at right angles to Enteromorpha filaments. Trochilia moves up and down  Enteromorpha filaments using its ventral cilia and when it finds a suitable single diatom ,Trochilia detaches the alga at the point of attachment and pulls it, base first inside the cell with the help of contractile micro- tubules.

       Be sure to use the entire screen to view the video.

 

 In the second video (1:40) Trochilia approaches one of these diatoms and quickly consumes it.

 

https://vimeo.com/149428071  Trochilia  X600

Feeding at 3:53 onward

https://vimeo.com/149428089  Trochilia X600

Feeding from about 1:40-2:00

https://vimeo.com/149428066  Trochilia X600

 

41. Uronychia

Class Spirotrichia  Subclass Hypotrichia

 

Ciliate Uronychia  X600 8 TP Pool April 24 2015 (2)

Ciliate Uronychia  X400 8 TP Pool April 24 2015 (4)

Ciliate Uronychia X600 (4) Thomas Point Pool May 8 2015

Ciliate Uronychia X600 Marsh Pool TB May 28 2015  (3)

Uronychia, about 90 microns long, is an oval-shaped, rigid ciliate with a transparent, colorless cortex (Outer layer of the cytoplasm). The animal has a well-developed adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) at the anterior end that moves them smoothly through the water. Periodically, Uronychia will “twitch” (jump) and then move forward again. Movement seems random. Five relatively large, thick, transverse cirri arise near the posterior end. They move sluggishly and don’t appear to play a role in cell movement. Three large, thick anal cirri arise from the right side. They also don’t appear to aid in locomotion. A macro-nucleus composed of a string of beads is present. An undulating membrane is visible on the left hand side opposite the AZM. The undulating membrane is made up of long cilia, fused together to form a single transparent sheet.Both the undulating membrane and the AZM move food particles (detritus, bacteria, small algal cells and small protozoans) into the mouth (Cytosome).

 

https://vimeo.com/150080591  Uronychia X600 Walking

https://vimeo.com/150080587  Uronychia X600 Anatomy Walking

https://vimeo.com/150080588  Uronychia X600 Anatomy

 

42. Vaginicola

Class Oligohymenophora   Sub-Class Peritrichia

 

Ciliate Vaginicola X600 Good Maquoit Pool May 15 2016

 Ciliate Vaginicola X600 Good Maquoit Pool May 15 2016z.jpg

Ciliate Vaginicoila X600 Maquoit Pool May 15 2016n

Vaginicola is similar to Cothurnea. Cothurnea has a short stalk that attaches the posterior end of the  lorica to a solid surface while Vaginicola lacks a stalk and its lorica is directly attached to the substratum. Vaginicola is larger (about 150 microns long) than Cothurnea and there usually are two individuals in each lorica.

 

https://vimeo.com/168685700   Vaginicola X600

https://vimeo.com/168691890   Vaginicola X600

 

43. Vorticella

Class Oligohymenophorea  Subclass Peritrichia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vorticella

 

Ciliate Vorticella spp

Vorticella is composed of a single cell, about 50 microns long, attached to one stalk. The stalk is attached to the substratum and has a central contractile thread (Spasmoneme) that pulls the cell body downward when the animal is disturbed. Contraction of the spasmoneme causes the stalk to form a coil. When the spasmoneme relaxes, the stalk uncoils and extends upward. Cilia form a band (AZM) around the anterior end. The AZM starts in the oral cavity and winds spirally in a counter clockwise direction to a point along the edge of the area that surrounds the mouth. There are no somatic cilia on the cell body. Water is drawn by these cilia from beneath the cell to a point above the cell body and back down in a loop. Food particles tend to drop to the center and may be directed into the mouth (Cytostome) and down the cytopharynx into a food vacuole. Food may include detritus, bacteria and small protozoans. Food vacuole formation and release into the cytoplasm is visible in the first video. Vorticella reproduces asexually by dividing in two. One cell remains on the stalk while the other develops into an unattached swimming cell (Telotroch) that eventually attaches to the substratum and grows a new stalk (View the last two videos). The telotroch is characterized by a ring of cilia around the basal part of the cell.

 

https://vimeo.com/153027504  Vorticella    X600 Stalk Contraction

https://vimeo.com/153027504  Vorticella X600  Contraction

https://vimeo.com/153027502  Vorticella X600 Feeding

https://vimeo.com/114370166  Vorticella X600 Food Vacuole Formation

https://vimeo.com/81200324  Vorticella X600 Symbiotic Green Algae

https://vimeo.com/114370164  Vorticella X600 Telotroch Larva. Note the basal ring of cilia.

44. Zoothamnion

Class Oligohymenophorea  Subclass Peritrichia

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoothamnium

 

Ciliate Zoothamnion Good X600 TP Marsh Pool April 30  2016  (3)

Zoothamnion is a colonial ciliate with two or more cells (Each about 50 microns long) all connected to a single stalk. A single contractile thread (Spasmoneme), in the center of the stalk, connects to each cell. When the contractile thread shortens, the stalk and cells are pulled downward simultaneously. It is not unusual to see Zoothamnion colonies attached externally to arthropods such as cladocerans and ostracods.Cilia form a band (AZM) around the anterior end. The AZM starts in the oral cavity and winds spirally in a counter clock wise direction to a point along the edge of the area that surrounds the mouth. There are no somatic cilia on the cell body. Water is drawn by these cilia from beneath the cell to a point above the cell body and back down in a loop. Food particles tend to drop to the center and may be directed into the mouth (Cytostome) and down the cytopharynx into a food vacuole.  Food may include detritus, bacteria and small protozoans.

 

https://vimeo.com/114373294  Zoothamnion X100 Movement

https://vimeo.com/150037318  Zoothamnion X100 Movement

https://vimeo.com/150037328  Zoothamnion X600 Feeding and Food Vacuole Formation

https://vimeo.com/150037333  Zoothamnion X600 Feeding Movement

https://vimeo.com/165352147  Zoothamnion X600

 

8. Class Suctoria

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suctoria

 

Suctorians belong to a group of ciliates that have lost all cilia during early development and are permanently attached to the substratum by means of a non-contractile stalk. The cell body, about 60 microns in diameter has numerous, long, tubular tentacles each with a rounded tip where the mouth is located. Tentacles capture prey (Ciliates, flagellates, small rotifers, etc.) and  immediately immobilize them. At that point suctorians suck out the insides of their prey through one of their many mouths. This process is shown in the video of Acineta below.

 Acineta

 

Suctoria Acineta Feeding X600 Maquoit Pool May 15 2016 (2)

https://vimeo.com/169786790  Acineta X600

Podophyra

 

 

Cil;iate Suctorians X600 TP Marsh Pool March 3 2016  (2)

https://vimeo.com/160160276  Podophyra X600

 

 

 

8. Flagellated Protozoans

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flagellate

 

Flagellates are often classified on the basis of whether or not they contain chloroplasts.  Phytoflagellates (Autotrophs) (Euglena, Phacus and the dinoflagellates) contain chloroplasts allowing them to manufacture their own food photosynthetically. They generally have two anterior flagella, one of which is often shorter than the other.  Zooflagellates on the other hand lack chloroplasts, have one to several flagella, and are heterotrophic. This division is somewhat arbitrary since many “phytoflagellate”genera such as Euglena have populations that lack chloroplasts and capture their food.

  

 Amphidinium

(Phylum Dinoflagellata)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphidinium

 Flagellate Amphidium X600TP Marsh Pool March 20 2016 vv (2)

 

 Flagellate Amphidium X1000 TP Marsh Pool April 5  2016

Amphidinium, about 35 microns long, has a lobed yellow-brown chloroplast that fills the cell interior. The equatorial groove divides the cell unequally into a short anterior portion and a much longer posterior section. A long trailing flagellum extends outward from the groove. The rigid dinoflagfellate lacks external plates. They are abundant from April to October and are consumed by a number of invertebrates.

 

https://vimeo.com/160651475  Amphidinium X600

 

 Anisonema

(Phylum Euglenozoa ,Class Euglenophyceae, Family Anisonemidae)

https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Euglenineae

https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anisonema

 

Flagellate Anisonema X600 TP Marsh Pool March 3 2016z (1)

 Anisonema, about 40 microns long, has two flagella. The posterior flagellum (Visible) has a broad base and is longer than the anterior flagellum (Visible); it can attach to the substratum and contract, pulling the cell body rapidly backwards with a jerky motion. The anterior flagellum pulls the cell body forward. Food is taken into an anterior reservoir and incorporated into a food vacuole. They most likely consume detritus, bacteria and small protozoans. Anisonema lacks chloroplasts.

 

https://vimeo.com/160139548   Anisonema X600

 

https://vimeo.com/160160320  Anisonema X600

 

  Bodo

 (Phylum Euglenozoa ,Class Kinetoplastea , Order Bodonida )

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodonida

 

Ciliate Bodo GoodX600 TP Marsh Pool Nov 9 2015

Ciliate Bodo X600 TP Marsh Mid Pool 9 27 2015

Bodo, about 15 microns long, has two flagella that arise from an anterior reservoir. One of them trails a relatively long distance beyond the posterior end of the cell body. The other flagellum is held straight out in front of the cell body. The tip of this flagellum rotates in a circle and is responsible for pulling the ciliate forward. The posterior section of the trailing flagellum often attaches to the substratum and then contracts pulling the entire flagellate backwards. Feeding was not observed, however they most likely feed on detritus, bacteria and small protozoans, etc. Bodo lacks chloroplasts.

 

https://vimeo.com/160659609  Bodo X600


 Chilomonas

(Phylum Cryptophyta. Class Cryptomonaceae Family Cryptomonidae)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilomonas

 

Flagellate Chilomonas X600 Ciliate X600 TP Marsh Pool March 3 2016

Flagellate Chilomonas X600 2 Flagella visible  TP Pool April 24 2015 - Copy.jpg

 

Chilomonas, about 30 microns long, is abundant at all stations. The cell body, round in cross-section, is inflexible. Round starch grains fill most of the cell body. They lack chloroplasts. Two flagella, one short and one long, emerge from a slight depression at the anterior end (Visible). The flagellates move from side to side propelled by the flagella. Chilomonas rotates to the left or right, on its central anterior-posterior axis as it moves forward. When the flagellate touches an obstacle, it quickly moves away and reverses direction. It may repeat the process several times.There is one anterior contractile vacuole.

 

https://vimeo.com/168652330  Chilomonas X100


https://vimeo.com/160659606   Chilomonas X600

 

 

 Cryptomonas

 

(Phylum Cryptophyta, Class Cryptomonaceae Family Cryptomonidae)

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptomonas

 

 Flagellate Cryptomonas X1000 aTP Marsh Pool  April 30 2016 (3)

 

Cryptomonas, about 25 microns long, and one of the most abundant flagellates, has two flagella that arise from a pocket at the anterior end. The longer flagellum is about twice body length while the second is about as wide as the cell body. Two chloroplasts impart a yellow-green-brown color to the rigid flagellate. Cryptomonas is one of the most abundant flagellates. As the animal moves forward, wobbling slightly from side to side, it rotates, either right or left, around the central, anterior-posterior longitudinal axis.

 

https://vimeo.com/160160322  Cryptomonas X100

 

 https://vimeo.com/160659605  Cryptomonas X400

 

https://vimeo.com/160174836   Cryptomonas X600

 

https://vimeo.com/161857376  Cryptomonas X1000

 

 

 Euglena

( Phylum Euglenozoa, Class Euglenophyceae, Family Euglenidae)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euglena

 Euglena 22

 

 Euglena, about 45 microns long,  has one, thick flagellum that extends from a pocket at the anterior end. The flagellate rotates on its central, longitudinal,  anterior-posterior axis as it moves forward. It has a red stigma (Eye spot) at the anterior end and  has round grass green chloroplasts. Euglena is flexible allowing the flagellate to roll up into a ball and extend the thinner anterior portion forward (Euglenoid Motion). Euglenoid motion allows the flagellate to push its way through thick sediments such as mud.

 

https://vimeo.com/115430609   Euglena X600

 

https://vimeo.com/160949506  Euglena X600

 

 Gymnodinium

(Phylum Dinoflagellata)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnodinium

 

Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium X600 TP Pool April 24 2015 a (3)

 Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium Marsh Pool TB July 17 2015

The bilaterally symmetrical rigid cell, containing yellow-green chloroplasts, is about 50 microns long. Gymnodinium lacks external plates and has an equatorial groove that circles around the middle of the cell. Two flagella arise from the groove. One, the trailing flagellum, extends outward, propelling the dinoflagellate forward as well as causing the cell to move from side to side. The second flagellum lies in the groove and when it beats the cell rotates, either left or right, around its central anterior-posterior longitudinal axis. They are abundant from April to October and are consumed by a number of invertebrates, especially ciliates.

 

https://vimeo.com/160949504  Gymnodinium X600

 

https://vimeo.com/160949466  Gymnodinium X600

 

 Notosolenus

 ( Phylum Euglenozoa, Class Euglenophyceae)

https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Euglenophyta

 

Flagellate Notosolenus X600 Marsh Pool TB May 28 2015

 Flagellate Notosolenus  X600 Marsh Pool TB July 17 2015 (2)

notosolenus-x600-tp-pool-9-22-2016

Notosolenus is a rigid, oval flagellate, about 30 microns long, that has two flagella originating from a pocket (Reservoir) at the anterior end. The first flagellum is longer than the cell body and is directed forward while the second short flagellum trails posteriorly. The tip of the anterior flagellum rotates pulling the animal forward. Notosolenus can move to the right or left by moving the entire flagellum in the desired direction. They feed on bacteria for the most part; however, small round micro-protozoans are often spotted in food vacuoles.

 

https://vimeo.com/160671204   Notosolenus X600

 

https://vimeo.com/162381466  Notosolenus X600

 

 Peranema

(Phylum Euglenozoa,Class Euglenophyceae, Family Peranemaceae)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peranema

 

 Flagellate Peranema spp, X400 Good  BP Cathance 7 21 2014 (1)

 

Peranema is a flexible, flattened, colorless (Lacks Chloroplasts) euglenoid flagellate. The animal glides through the water with a slight side to side movement. A long flagellum extends in a more or less straight line anteriorly. The flagellum tip rotates in a circle drawing the animal forward. Peranema can move to the right or left by moving the entire flagellum in the desired direction. They can also change direction by contracting the cell body into a ball and extending the anterior end in along a new path. A second, much smaller flagellum (usually not visible) arises, along with the first from a “flask-shaped” clear, reservoir located at the anterior end. I observed Peranema force a small Euglena into a second reservoir, next to the reservoir containing the flagella, and form a food vacuole around it. Prey, too large to consume directly, may be taken into the reservoir and poked with an internal rod until they rupture. The released cytoplasm can then be incorporated into a food vacuole. They feed on detritus, bacteria and protozoans, etc.

 

https://vimeo.com/160671207  Peranema X600

 

https://vimeo.com/119899270  Peranema X600

 

 

 Phacus

 

(Phylum Euglenophypa Family Euglenophyceae)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phacus

 

Phacus, about 25 microns long, has one long flagellum arising from the anterior end.  The cell body is twisted spirally and as the flagellum moves, it causes the cell body to spiral, either to the left or right, around the central anterior-posterior longitudinal axis. Small, round chloroplasts are present and a small reddish eye-spot (difficult to see) is located towards the anterior end. Phacus was present in large numbers in the March 2016 collection.


https://vimeo.com/161324988  Phacus X600


 Unidentified Flagellate (Abundant in the March 20th Collection)

https://vimeo.com/161386002  Flagellate Unknown X1000

 

 Unidentified Flagellate

 

https://vimeo.com/161391818  Unknown Flagellate X600 Perhaps Trachelomonas

 

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

10. Amoeboid Protozoans

 

https://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amoeba

 

 

Amoeboid protozoans  may be protected by an external covering (Test) or they may lack such a covering (Naked) . The protective tests, secreted by the cell body may be constructed of organic material, silicon or a sticky matrix that trap particles such as small sand grains. Most have extensions of the cell called  pseudopodia that are responsible for movement and feeding.

 

 Types of Pseudopodia:

1.Naked amoebas, often form broad, finger-like extensions called Lobopodia or Pseudopodia: (Lobopodia):  http://vimeo.com/115444163   (Zottoli) (Amoeba) X400.

 

 2. Test forming amoebas may also form pseudopodia:  http://vimeo.com/115439340   (Zottoli) Difflugia X400)

 

 3. Some form thin pseudopodia called Filipodia:

 http://vimeo.com/115670878   (Zottoli) Cyphoderia X400)

4. Some form pseudopodia (Granular Reticulopodia)

that fuse with each other forming a net (web).

https://vimeo.com/144917990  Allogromia X600

 

Genera of Amoeboid Protozoans

 Actinophyrs (Heliozoan)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinophrys

 

 

Heliozoa Actinophrys X600 Marsh Pool TB July 17 2015 (4)

The cell body of heliozoans consists of an outer cortex that contains the endoplasm and an inner  rounded medulla that contains the nucleus and the bases of the needle-like axopods. Each axopod has a central rod composed of microtubules that is covered with cytoplasm. When prey contact the axopod, they are enclosed in a food vacuole that eventually reaches the cortex.

 Actinophrys, about 100 microns in diameter, is characterized by axopods that taper to a fine pointed tip. The heliozoan has a visible round, centrally located nucleus. Food vacuoles containing prey are visible along the inside of the cell membrane. A contractile vacuole is visible as a clear bubble next to the cell membrane. They feed for the most part on small protozoans.

 

https://vimeo.com/160949508  Actinophrys X600

 

 

 Allogromia

(Phylum Granuloreticulosa, Class Foraminifera)

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allogromia

Amoeba Allogromia  X400 TPMarsh Mid Pool 9 27 2015 (4)

Allogromia, about 125 microns, long, occupies a one-chambered test (shell) composed of calcium carbonate. The test is smooth and transparent with one opening that extends internally through a short tube (Visible). Pseudopods (Granular Reticulopodia) extend from the test opening, forming a network (Web) of anastomosing branches. Food vacuoles are formed by pseudopods around prey (Bacteria, small protozoans, and diatoms for the most part) and passed into a food vacuole where digestion takes place. It appears as if masses of detritus containing bacteria, diatoms and micro-protozoans are ingested. A relatively large diatom is visible inside the cell body. They move from place to place by extension and contraction of pseudopods

 

https://vimeo.com/144917990  Allogromia X600

 

https://vimeo.com/161305665  Allogromia X600

 

 Cashia

 (Hartmannellidae)

 

Amoeba Cashia X600 TP Poo lJune 9 2015

 

Cashia is a single, naked, round, sac-like amoeba, about 45 microns long. Feeding was not observed, although diatoms are frequently found in the cytoplasm.

 

https://vimeo.com/160646582  Cashia X600

 

Mayorella 

(Paramoebidae)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayorella

 

Mayorella is characterized by short, pointed pseudopods that have a broad base. New pseudopods tend to be formed toward the front part of the cell. One contractile vacuole is present. Feeding was not observed.

 

Amoeba Mayorella spp 

https://vimeo.com/160139510  Mayorella X600

 

 

 Saccamoeba 

(Hartmannellidae)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saccamoeba

 

 Amoeba Saccamoeba spp

 

Saccamoeba, about 30 microns long, has a defined anterior and posterior end. The anterior end always determines the direction of movement and the posterior end follows. The posterior end (Uroid) is of the “Villous Bulb Type”.

https://vimeo.com/115719684  Saccamoeba X600

 

https://vimeo.com/115719687  Saccamoeba X400

 

Globigerina

(Phylum Granuloreticulosa, Class Foraminifera)

 foraminiferan-thomas-pt-pool-9-22-2016

 

11. Phylum Cnidaria ( Class Anthozoa, Family Edwarsidae )

Nematostella probably N. vectensis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nematostella

 

https://vimeo.com/161305616  Nematostella X100

 

 

12. Phylum Platyhelminthes, Class Turbellaria, Order Rhabdocoela

  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/rhabdocoela

 

All of the genera below belong to the class Turbellaria. They are elongated animals that are generally flattened dorso-ventrally and have cilia on most of the body surfaces. Flatworms have a digestive tract with one opening that serves as both mouth and anus. The mouth is usually positioned ventrally, however it can be terminal or sub-terminal. The digestive tract begins with a muscular pharynx that connects to a digestive tube. Platyhelminths are hermaphrodites that are capable of reproducing sexually. The genus Catenula is able to asexually form chains of individuals (Zooids) that are genetically identical to the parent. The zooids eventually separate from the parent and go their own way. Eye-spots may or may not be present. Cilia, on the flattened ventral surface propel the animal smoothly over the substratum, however many species with well-developed body cilia can swim freely throughout the water column.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

a. Unidentified Species X100

 

In the video below, the unidentified flatworm extends its pharynx into a dead flatworm and sucks out tissue. You can see the material drawn through the pharynx and into the digestive tract of the predator. After finishing the feeding process, the animal withdraws its pharynx and leaves.

 

Video: http://player.vimeo.com/video/14565454 

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

b. Catenula

 

 Catenula spp

Catenula spp

Catenula, about 1.75 mm long, has a rounded head region separated from the rest of the body by a circular groove. The relatively small flatworm has a characteristic, round, statocyst on the head region. A ventral, round mouth opening is located behind the head. It leads into a sac-like digestive tract. Catenula is often divided into a series of zooids. During active feeding bouts they may twist and turn using mesoderm derived, circular and longitudinal muscles. Feeding was not observed.

 

https://vimeo.com/162381627  Catenula X400

http://vimeo.com/86073628  Catenula X400

http://vimeo.com/86073629  Catenula X400

http://vimeo.com/86073627  Catenula X400

 ___________________________________

c. Gyratrix

 

https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyratrix

 Platyhelminth Gyratrix X00 7TP Pool May 11 2015 (2)

Platyhelminthes Gyratrix spp

The hermaproditic, rhabdocoel flatworm Gyratrix spp. , shown in the video below, is slightly flattened by the pressure of the glass coverslip, allowing a better view of external and internal structures. Note the two black eyespots at the anterior end. A muscular proboscis lies in front of the eyespots. The digestive tract is sac-like. . There is a raised mound in the center of the digestive tract. This is the pharynx. The mouth is visible as a small hole in the center of the pharynx. A harpoon-like structure (Penis Stylet) is visible at the posterior end. It inserts amoeboid sperm into the vaginal opening of another individual during the mating process. The opening through which the stylet is extended outward during sperm insertion is also visible.

 

https://vimeo.com/162381629  Gyratrix X100

http://player.vimeo.com/video/14650199

 

d. Macrostomum

 

Platyhelminthes Macrostomum Good X400 Marsh Pool TB July29 2015c (1)

Macrostomum , about 0.5 mm, has two eyespots and is dorso-ventrally flattened. An elongated slit-like, ventral mouth enters a muscular, rounded pharynx. The pharynx is connected to a single tube-like digestive tract. In one specimen the gut is filled with a number of  dinoflagellates (Gymnodinium) while  in another ,a single, ,long diatom (Gyrosigma) pushes against the gut and body wall. The posterior end is studded with short spines.

 

 Platyhelminthes Macrostomum X400 Marsh Pool (Mid) TP 9 6  2015

 https://vimeo.com/162108859  Macrostomum X400 Anatomy

https://vimeo.com/162108858  Macrostomum X400 Gut filled with one large diatom

https://vimeo.com/162108860  Macrostomum X400

https://vimeo.com/162108862  Macrostomum X600 Gut filled with the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium

 https://vimeo.com/162108858  Macrostomum X400 Gut filled with one large diatom

13. Phylum Nematoda

 

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/nematoda

 

Nematode 3 Anterior          X400 TP Marsh Pool March 3 2016 

Nematodes (Round Worms) are  multi-cellular organisms that live in large numbers in almost every freshwater and marine habitat. Longitudinal muscles that run the length of the animal contract on one side and then the other generally moving the animal forward or backward. Nematodes have a complete digestive system with mouth and anus and most species living in marsh pools feed on microscopic organisms such as bacteria that they suck into their mouths using a muscular pharyngeal bulb located between the pharynx and intestine. The process is similar to what happens when liquid is drawn into an eyedropper by squeezing and releasing the bulb.

 

a.  Nematode Movement  X 100

 http://player.vimeo.com/video/17293767   

 

b. Nematode Anatomy (Male)

 X400

 Nematode 2         X400TP Marsh Pool March 3 2016

 Nematode Male X600 x Marsh Mid Pool 9 27 2015

 http://player.vimeo.com/video/14650477 


http://player.vimeo.com/video/14650680 

 

Specimen Description: Initially the video shows the anterior end. The mouth is visible followed by the pharynx. The pharynyx joins the muscular, round buccal bulb. It is visible at the bottom of the first screen. Then as the video progresses the buccal bulb joins the intestine. The intestinal lining has a greenish tinge to it. The body is surrounded by a cuticle with numerous circular rings. The posterior end is curved. Note the curved copulatory spicules that lie in a sac that opens through the anus. During copulation the spicules guide amoeboid sperm into the vaginal opening of a female.

 

c. Female Nematode Anatomy X400 – Anterior to Posterior.

 

 Nematode Female X400 Excellent BP Cathance 7 21 2014 (7)

Nematode Female X400 Excellent BP Cathance 7 21 2014 (5)

 http://player.vimeo.com/video/15109685 


 http://player.vimeo.com/video/17275294 

 

Specimen Description: The female is covered by a ringed cuticle. Thin extensions arise from the cuticle  that most likely have a sensory function. The muscular pharynx opens to the outside through the mouth. It is connected to a round buccal bulb that in turn connects to the intestine. A pigmented digestive tract extends backwards almost to the end of the animal where it terminates in a clear triangular cavity that opens to the outside through the anus The intestine is obscured for the most part by the reproductive system. The reproductive system opens to the outside through a short vaginal canal. The entrance to the vaginal canal is visible in the center of the slightly raised mound (Vulva) towards the middle of the body . The vaginal canal splits into two uteri, one projecting anteriorly, the other posteriorly. This is where the fertilized embryos develop. Each uterus connects to an ovary where the eggs are formed. The eggs are almost square with a clear, round, central area that contains the nucleus. A small developing worm is present in each arm of the uterus.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

14.Phylum Rotifera

  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotifera

 

Rotifer Philodina  spp 

 Rotifers are multicellular organisms that can be found in most freshwater and marine habitats. The photograph above and the video below illustrate general rotifer anatomy (400X). They are temporarily attached to the substratum by a thin foot (Visible) and two small terminal toes ( Visible). The toes secrete a mucus-like substances that holds them in place. The foot widens into the body proper (Visible) that houses most of the organs. A ciliated bi-lobed disc (Visible) is attached to the body. Disc cilia move the unattached animal through the water column, however, when the animal is attached, the cilia create water movement that brings food (small organisms such as bacteria) toward the mouth. Most species are filter feeders. Two dark eye -spots are visible just below the ciliated disc. Food passes into a muscular bulb called the mastax or pharynx.The mastax contains 2 jaw-like trophi. In most cases the mastax beats (contracts and expands) constantly. The mastax along with the trophi, grind up food that passes first into the Brown digestive tract and then into the intestine. Finally, undigested waste is ejected through the anus.The terminal anus is not visible.  The colorless vitellaria (Visible), where eggs are formed, lie on both  sides of the digestive tract.

https://vimeo.com/116354418  Rotifer

 

a.  Colurella

(Lepadellidae)

 

Rotifer Colurella  X600 TP Pool April 24 2015l (5)

 Rotifer Colurella X600 Whartons Point Pool Sept 22 2016 (2).jpg

The rigid lorica around the rotifer is composed of two lateral plates that are strongly compressed. The rotifer, about 120 microns long, has a ciliated corona that is responsible for moving the animal forward. The toes frequently  attach to the substratum asllowing the animal to bend downward touching the bottom with its coronal cilia. The movement of coronal cilia dislodge food  particles that are then directed into the mouth. A frontal hood extends downward in front of the face. It is positioned in such way that as the corona is withdrawn into the lorica, food is prevented from escaping to the sides. Contraction of the foot in concert with the positioning of the toes allows the animal to turn and  twist. The active mastax with its malleate trophi is extended out of the mouth and the trophi grab food that is moved through a short oesophagus into the stomach. Small green flagellates as well as bacteria have been seen inside the stomach. The ciliated corona can be completely withdrawn into the lorica when the animal is disturbed.

 

https://vimeo.com/162381626  Colurella X600

https://vimeo.com/162391501  Colurella X600

 

b.  Encentrum

 (Dicranophoridae)

 

  Rotifer Encentrum X600 TP Marsh Pool March 3 2016 (1)

 Encentrum, about 160 microns long,  lacks a rigid external lorica, allowing the animal to move freely. The anterior, simple, ciliated corona draws the rotifer through the water column. Encentrum has a short foot with two toes that also aid in movement. The toes are capable of attaching to the substratum allowing the animal to maintain position while  feeding  or as a pivot point to push off in different directions. A structure called the mastax lies just below the mouth. It contains two trophi (Forcipate Trophi) that resemble a pair of pliers. The pointed tips of the trophi are thrust out of the mouth, grabbing prey that are then passed into the stomach. The movement of the trophi is visible in most of the videos.

 

https://vimeo.com/162391604  Encentrum X600

https://vimeo.com/162391606  Encentrum  X600

https://vimeo.com/162391605  Encentrum X600

 

 

c. Eothinia (Notommatidae)

 

 RotiferEothinia Marsh Pool Mid TP 8 7  2015 (1).jpg

Rotifer Eothenia Marsh Pool Mid TP 8 7  2015 (1).jpg

RotiferEotihnia    X600 Marsh Pool TB June 22 2015 (1)

Eothinia, about 320 microns long, lacks a rigid lorica, allowing the rotifer some flexibility as they move through bottom sediments and around algal filaments.They have an anterior ciliated crown (Corona) that moves them through the water column.The mastax,used to procure food, has two virgate  trophi. A posterior, annulated foot with two terminal toes also aids in movement. The toes attach to the substratum allowing the rotifer to maintain postion or push off and move in a different direction.

 

https://vimeo.com/162401155  Eothinia  X600 feeding on the blue green bacterium Nostoc

 

https://vimeo.com/162401075  Eothinia X600

 

https://vimeo.com/162401218   Eothinia X600

https://vimeo.com/162401217   Eothinia X600


d. Synchaeta

(Family Synchaetidae)

https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Synchaeta


Rotifer Synchaeta X400 8 TP Pool April 24 2015

Rotifer Synchaeta X400 4 TP Pool April 24 2015

Synchaeta, about 400 microns long, has a mastax with virgate trophi connected to large, visible, hypo-pharyngeal muscles. The lorica surrounding the rotifer is flexible (Illoricate). The ciliated corona is flanked on both sides by a group of lateral cilia. These most likely correspond to the “ear like lobes”(Auricles) listed as a characteristic of this genus. A pair of small, lateral, stiff setae are present at the point where the “head” ends and the “body” begins. The body tapers towards the posterior end  joining a short foot and single toe. A large, brownish stomach lies behind the mastax and a small bean-shaped  vitellarium is situated next to the stomach in the anterior part of the body. There are 4 sensory bristles on the head (only 3 are visible).

 

https://vimeo.com/162413414  Synchaeta X100

https://vimeo.com/162413415  Synchaeta X400

https://vimeo.com/162413412   Synchaete X400

e.  Testudinella

 (Testudinellidae)

https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Testudinella

Rotifer Testudinella Good  X400 T P Marsh Mid Pool 9 27 2015 (1)

The disc-shaped rotifer , about 325 microns wide, is dorso-ventrally flattened. The ciliated corona can be extended from the protective lorica allowing the animal to move and feed. It also can be pulled into the lorica by retractor muscles during stressful times. The lorica is composed of a dorsal and a ventral plate, fused along the edges. An annulated, ventral , posterior foot, resembling an elephant’s trunk, can be extended from or withdrawn into the lorica. A ciliated cup, at the end of the foot can temporarily attach the rotifer to the substratum during feeding bouts.

 

https://vimeo.com/162413410  Testudinella X400

 

https://vimeo.com/162435462  Testudinella X400

 

https://vimeo.com/162413411  Testudinella X400

______________________________________________________________________________________________________


15. Phylum Annelida

 

a.  Class Oligochaeta

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oligochaeta

 

Annelids are multi-cellular, segmented animals with a mouth and anus. The annelid body is segmented both externally and internally. Externally note the bundles of setae (Pointed Projections) that extend laterally from each segment. They help anchor the body during movement. Internally a sheet of tissue (Septum) separates most segments at their front and rear boundaries. They constrict the digestive tract making it appear like a “string of beads”. The anterior end is thicker than the posterior and internally contains the orange, muscular pharynx. The dark intestine extends from its junction with the pharynx to the posterior end where food exits through the anus. Peristaltic contraction of circular muscles that surround the gut are noticeable and help move food from anterior to posterior. The red pigment hemoglobin transports oxygen in the blood of most annelids. Contraction of circular muscles in the wall of annelid blood vessels propels blood throughout the body as shown below.

Oligochaete Tubificidae X100 TP Pool May 11 2015  (2)c

Oligochaete Tubificidae X100 TP Pool May 11 2015  (2)hh

Oligochaete X400 TP Marsh Pool March 3 2016c Oligochaete Tubificidae X400 TP Pool May 11 2015  (1)b

Oligochaete Tubificidae X100 TP Pool May 11 2015  (2)

Oligochaete Tubificidae X400 TP Pool May 11 2015  (1)a

 

i. Oligochaete Anatomy

http://player.vimeo.com/video/14566025

 

ii. Oligochaete Anatomy

http://player.vimeo.com/video/14685703

 

iii. Oligochaete Anatomy. Asexual Reproduction

http://player.vimeo.com/video/15040107

 

The video above, shows all of the features mentioned  here as well as highlighting the process of asexual reproduction. Look for two orange areas divided by an external furrow (Ring) about one third the distance from the anterior end. The area to the left (Towards the Anterior End) is made up of several narrow segments with developing setae. This will become the posterior end when the sections separate. To the right a new head is forming. The intestine at this point passes unobstructed through both sections. Eventually the worm will split into two genetically identical individuals.

 

iv. Sporozoan intestinal parasites in an unidentified oligochaete

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregarine

Gregarine parasites (Trophozoites), about 0.5 mm long, can be seen in the intestine of the oligochaete shown in the photograph and video below. The numerous, single celled parasites have a rounded anterior section attached to a sac-like posterior portion. The parasite is  one stage in a complex life cycle.

 Oligochaete X100 zMarsh Pool April 5  2016 b (1)

https://vimeo.com/163863547 Oligochaete X400 Note the Sporozoan parasites in the intestine (9:19)

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

b. Class Polychaeta, Family Spionidae 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/polychaete

 

Polydora ligni

Family Spionidae

 

Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polydora_ligni

 

This species that normally lives in a tube, has a head (Prostomium) that bears two eye spots and a pair of long palps. The palps are extended from the open end of the tube into the water column (4th video below). Food is caught in a ventral ciliated groove that runs the length of the palp.  Food is then moved by cilia to the base of the palp and from here into the mouth. The fourth video shows the palps emerging from the mud tube. Most segments have a pair of lateral extensions (Parapodia) equipped  with a bundle of relatively long , needle-like setae that aid in movement.  Eggs are fertilized and deposited by the female in the maternal tube. Video 5 shows a group of developing worms removed from the maternal tube and Video 6 shows a close-up of one of those worms.

 

Polychaete Polydora ligni X100 TP Marsh Pool April 5  2016xxx

 Polychaete Polydora ligni X100 TP Marsh Pool April 5  2016

Polychaete Polydora ligni X100 TP Marsh Pool April 5  2016m

https://vimeo.com/163865630  Polydora X100 Anatomy

https://vimeo.com/163863549  Polydora X100 X400 Anatomy

https://vimeo.com/163863546  Polydora X100 X400 Anatomy

 Http://player.vimeo.com/video/30042981 X100 Polydora in tube extending palps.

 

Http://player.vimeo.com/video/29808918 

X100 Developing worms removed from the tube

 

Http://player.vimeo.com/video/29809501 

X400 Close up of a developing worm

 

 

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

16. Phylum Mollusca, Class Gastropoda

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/hydrobia

 

Hydrobia

 

 

Early Juvenile Gastropod Hycdrobia

 Later Stages

Gastropod Hydrobia h TP Pool May 6 2015gh

Gastropod Hydrobia h TP Pool May 6 2015c

Gastropod Hydrobia X400 Best 11TP Pool May 11 2015b

 Gastropod Hydrobia X100 Fecal Pellets Marsh Thomas Point Pool May 8 2015

Numerous small snails (Hydrobia spp.) live in and around the Enteromorpha mat. They consume food by scraping surfaces with their radula. The most likely sources of food are bacteria, diatoms attached to Enteromorpha, Chaetomorpha Cladophora, and Rhizoclonium as well as the algae themselves.  The snails were photographed upside down under a glass coverslip, with the flat foot facing upward. Beneath the foot, two tentacles each with a black basal eye-spot are visible. The mouth lies between the two tentacles. Animals move forward by extending their foot anteriorly. They attach the leading edge of the foot to the cover glass placed on top of the preparation. Next, the foot contracts pulling the rest of the animal forward. This process is repeated several times. The beating heart is visible. Numerous Hydrobia fecal pellets are  found in tide pool mud samples and most likely are an important food source for many  pool inhabitants.

 

https://vimeo.com/162381513  Hydrobia X100

https://vimeo.com/170097918  Hydrobia X100

 

The video below shows a young juvenile that recently hatched. The two anterior ciliated lobes are remnants of the trochophore larva. Other visible structures are the beating heart, eyespots, shell and operculum.

 

https://vimeo.com/168645261  Gastropod Juvenile X100

 

 

17. Phylum Arthropoda

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/arthropoda

 

 

a. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Arachnida, Spiders

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiders

 

There are  several spider species that live along pool edges. They crawl out onto the algal mat to prey on marsh insects. Spiders also live in both Spartina zones. They quickly scatter and disappear beneath the above ground vegetation when disturbed. They also have the ability to walk on water supported by the air/water surface tension.

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

b. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Crustacea, Order Amphipoda

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/amphipod

 

1. Gammarus sp. (about 10 mm long) (Side swimmers or Scuds)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gammarus

 

  

Gammarus is a genus of amphipods common to both marine and freshwater environments. Although they are scavengers they feed for the most part on algae, eelgrass (Zostera) and cordgrass (Spartina) detritus. Internally food is digested and the products of digestion are assimilated by the amphipod and used for their own needs. The remaining material passes out of their digestive tracts as fecal matter that becomes food for other organisms. They can walk on the sediment surface or swim rapidly on their sides. The specimen in the above photograph was found under a mat of dead eelgrass.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

2.   Unidentified Amphipod, About 5 mm Long

 

https://vimeo.com/162431874  Amphipod X100

 Anatomy and Movement

 

 The head features a pair of compound eyes, a pair of antennules slightly above the eyes, two antennae below the eyes, and two maxillipeds underneath the mouth. The thorax, consisting of 8 segments, is attached to the head followed by the abdomen. The maxillipeds are the first thoracic appendages, followed by 2 pairs of gnathopods (2nd and 3rd thoracic appendages). The gnathopods are followed by 5 pairs of pereiopods (4th to the 8th thoracic appendages). The abdomen has 6 pairs of abdominal appendages. The first three are periopods; they are constantly waving back and forth. The remaining three pairs are uropods.Amphipods can crawl as shown in the photographs above, swim sideways or tuck their abdomen under their body and flick it backward creating forward movement.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________


c. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Crustacea, Order Copepoda

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copepoda

Several species of copepods live in salt marsh pools. They are a common component of marine ecosystems, especially planktonic communities. A long (sometimes short) pair of antennules are visible extending laterally from the head. These are used to propel the animal forward as shown in the second video. Between the two antennae lies a single median eye. Thoracic appendages are visible along the wide portion of the body. The thorax narrows and joins a thinner abdomen. In the photographs below the cephalothorax is the region of the body from the point of the thorax arrow to the right; the thorax is the section of the body from the point of the thorax arrow to the tip of the abdomen arrow and the abdomen comprises the rest.

  

 Video #1 :showing the above specimen.

 

 Http://player.vimeo.com/video/24836026

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

  Video #2: Movement using antennae (Specimen about 4 mm long)

http://player.vimeo.com/video/24833189

______________________________________________________________________________________________

 Video #3 (Movement): The initial portion of the video clearly shows a copepod crawling over algal filaments.X400

 

 http://player.vimeo.com/video/14783796

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Video #4  (Movement): Dorso-Ventral Muscle Contractions.X400

  

http://player.vimeo.com/video/24831121

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Video #5 . Red Copepod X600

https://vimeo.com/162435569  Red Copepod X600

___________________________________________________________________

Video #6. Calanoid Copepod X100

Copepod Calanoid X100 Maquoit Pool  May 19 2016.jpg 

Calanoid copepods are characterized by long antennules, a single medial eyespot, a wide cephalothorax and a thin posterior abdomen. The digestive tract,  partially filled with food, is visible in the cephalothroax and abdomen. The anus opens to the outside near the end of the abdomen. Stored food in the form of oil droplets is visible internally. The heart, a long thin tube, can be seen dorsally, above the digestive tract. It beats continuously. The head bears the following pairs of appendages in the following order: Antennules; Antennae; Mandibles; First and Second Pairs of  Maxillae. The first two thoracic segments are fused to the head forming the cephalothorax while the remaining four are free. Each of the four free thoracic segments bears a pair of swimming legs. The thin, three segmented abdomen has no appendages.

http://player.vimeo.com/video/24840904 Calanoid Copepod X100

______________________________________________________________________

Video #7. Cyclopoid Copepod X100

Copepod eggs X100TP Marsh Pool April 5  2016 Copepod Cyclipoid X100 Good Marsh Pool (Mid) TP 9 6  2015

https://vimeo.com/162431922  Cyclopoid Copepod

 

______________________________________________________________________

 Video #8. Harpacticoid Copepod X100

 Copepod Harpacticoid 4

https://vimeo.com/162431934     Harpacticoid Copepod X100

 https://vimeo.com/162431874  Amphipod X100

________________________________________________________________________

 

Video #9 (Development). X100

Copepod eggs X100TP Marsh Pool April 5  2016 

The following video shows a harpacticoid copepod with a single sac containing developing young, attached to the ventral surface of the abdomen. Some of the young that have escaped the sac can be seen moving slowly using their short antennules.

 

http://player.vimeo.com/video/24833329

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Video #10 (Development) X600

The following video shows a nauplius larva that will eventually develop into an adult copepod.

 Copepod Nauplius vv X600 8 TP Pool April 24 2015

https://vimeo.com/162432008  Copepod Nauplius X600

 

_________________________________________________________________________

 

 

d. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Crustacea, Order Decapoda 

 

Palaemonetes  (Grass Shrimp)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palaemonetes

 

_______________________________________________

 

e . Phylum Arthropoda, Class Crustacea, Order Ostracoda

 

Ostracods are generally small crustaceans that are enclosed in a bivalve shell (Carapace). The carapace in this species is heavily pigmented making it difficult to clearly view the appendages. The videos below shows an ostracod moving its appendages in and out of its carapace in an attempt to escape. They normally crawl on the bottom or on the algal mat, feeding for the most part on algae and detritus.

    Ostracod  Anatomy BP Cathance 7 21 2014 (2)nOstracod spp 1 Internal Anatomy Good GP 7 4 2014 (2)b           

 

Http://player.vimeo.com/video/24834156

 

https://vimeo.com/162381567  Ostracod X400


Http://player.vimeo.com/video/29805393

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

f. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Collembola

(Springtail) Anurida maritima

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/collembola

 

 

 This wingless species, about 3 mm long, has a body divided into three regions: a head with two simple antennae and eyes; a three segmented thorax with three pairs of legs; and a six segmented abdomen. The body is covered with hairs that repel water. Consequently the animals float on the surface when covered by water. They are scavengers that feed on dead animals and plants.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

g. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Odonata

(Dragonflies and Damselflies)

 

 Dragonfly Adult

http://en.wikipedia/wiki/odonata

 

 

Dragonfly Nymph X40

 

37. Odonata Anisoptera Dorsal View

The body is divided into three sections. The first (Head) bears a pair of lateral compound eyes as well as a pair of dorsal  antennae and ventral mouth parts(not seen). The second section (Thorax) bears three pair of legs and small ventral wing pads. The third section (Abdomen) has no appendages and houses the intestine and rectum. The rectum houses internal  gills. Water is drawn into the rectum by muscular contraction around the rectum followed by muscular relaxation. This happens on a regular basis exposing the gills to oxygenated water. The animal can move forward quickly by squeezing water quickly out of the rectum (jet propulsion). Look for these features in the videos below.

 

HTTP://player.vimeo.com/video/29793059

 

HTTP://player.vimeo.com/video/29805008

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Damselfly Adult

http://en.wikipedia.org/odonata

 

Damselfly Nymph

 

41. Odonata Zygoptera PP

Damselfly nymphs have three external gills whereas dragonfly nymphs have internal gills.Dragonflies and Damselflies are voracious predators feeding on a variety of insects.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

h. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Diptera,

Family Tabanidae (Green Heads)

  

Tabanus nigrovittatus, Green Head

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tabanus

 

 

 

Tabanid larvae, depending on the species, live anywhere from several months to two years in salt marsh pools or on the marsh surface. The female needs to feed on blood to produce viable eggs. Eggs are laid on the marsh and hatch into a larva within a few days. The larva undergoes 6-10 molts before emerging as an adult. Tabanid larvae feed on soft bodied organisms.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

i. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order

Diptera,Family Culicidae, Mosquito (Larvae)

 

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/culicidae

Larva

Larva

Wyeomia smithii in Pitcher Plant X40 X100 Sidney Bog 2011xxz

Wyeomia smithii X40 in Pitcher Plant zz

 Wyeomia smithii in Pitcher Plant X40 X100 Sidney Bog 201vvpg

 The mosquito larva shown in the video below was taken from liquid inside a pitcher plant. I included it here because it has the same basic anatomy as mosquito larvae from marsh pools. 

The mosquito larva is divided into three sections (Head, Thorax and Abdomen). The small head has a pair of eyes, two antennae, and a pair of black lateral brushes that point forward. The brushes move back and forth from side to side, trapping small organisms that are directed into the mouth. The short, wide thorax attached to the head consists of three fused segments that lack appendages. The segmented abdomen is attached to the thorax and is responsible for the wriggling dorso-ventral movement of the animal as shown in the video below. Air passes into the tracheal tubes when he siphon extends slightly above the air-water interface.

 

https://vimeo.com/24331993  Mosquito Larva X40

https://vimeo.com/24330469  Mosquito Larva X40

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

j. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Family

Ceratopogonidae (Biting Midges)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ceratopogonidae

 Midge (Biting) Larva

Biting Midge Larvae are an important component of salt marsh pool ecosystems. They have a transparent , brownish head capsule with two black eyespots. They also possess a small pair of antennae that are difficult to see. They appear as two small projections in front of the head capsule. The dark areas within the head capsule are mouth parts used in feeding. The dark structure in the middle of the head is the labial plate used to scrape material off solid surfaces such as algal filaments. The scraped material is then directed into the mouth. The dark areas inside the anterior portion of the head are the mandibles. There are 11 segments not including the head capsule. They have a pair of terminal pro-legs with black hooks. Adults are less than 4 mm in length and inflict a painful bite. They  appropriately are called “no-see-ums”.

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________________


k. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Hemiptera,

Family Corixidae


Water Boatman (Adult)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corixidae

 

 

Water boatmen have three pairs of appendages arising from the three segmented thorax. The first pair stirs up mud/detritus with its spoon shaped terminal segments (Tarsi). Small organisms such as diatoms, protozoans and other small invertebrates are swept off the bottom and directed into the insects mouth. The terminal segments of the third pair of legs shown above are shaped like oars, and as might be expected, propel the animal forward. They have functional wings and can easily fly from one body of water to another. The thorax and abdomen lie underneath the wings.

 

https://vimeo.com/170219780  Waterboatman  Juvenile X100

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

 l. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Hemiptera,

 

Family Gerridae

 

 Water Strider (Adults)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerridae

 

The animal literally walks on water. The surface tension at the air-water interface supports the body weight of the animal. Sometimes one can see a slight depression (Look at the shadow on the bottom in the first photograph) where the tip (Tarsus) of the second and third pair of legs touch the water. During movement, the hind pair of legs is first brought forward and then quickly pushed against the water driving the animal forward. The middle longest pair of legs provides balance and free the front pair of legs to grab prey such as small fish and invertebrates. After prey is secured, the water strider drives its hollow, pointed probocis into the animal and sucks out body fluids.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

m. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Coleoptera,

 Family Hydrophilidae


Water Scavenger Beetle Larva X4

Water Scavenger Beetle Larvae are voracious predators feeding for the most part on small invertebrates. The adults on the other hand in most species consume dead and decaying matter.

 

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

18.  Phylum Chordata, Sub-Phylum Vertebrata, Class

 Actinopterygii

 

Fundulus heteroclitus (Mummichog)

http://en.wikipedia/wiki/Fundulus_heteroclitus

 

 

Fundulus is an omnivore that feeds for the most part on small pieces of marsh grasses, algae, small invertebrates, and small fish. It is the most abundant fish in  marsh pools that I have studied. Mummichogs can tolerate a wide range of salinities and have the ability to live in freshwater.

Red Blood Cells can be seen moving through blood vessels in the video below through the transparent epidermis of a juvenile Fundulus heteroclitus. Muscle fiber striations are also visible.

 

Video: http://player.vimeo.com/video/14619335

 _________________________________________________

 

 

Plants Commonly Found in Salt Marsh Pools

 

a. Cyperaceae (Sedge Family)

 

 

Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) robustus (Salt Marsh Bulrush)

http://en.wikipedia.org/Schoenoplectus

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SCRO5

 

 

 

 

b. Poaceae (Grass Family)

 

Spartina alterniflora (Salt-water Cordgrass)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spartina_alterniflora

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SPAL

 

 

 

c. Potamogetonaceae (Pondweed Family)

 

Ruppia maritima (Widgeon Grass)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruppia

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RUMA5

 

Ruppia maritima Wigeon Grass2 LR July 18 2003

Ruppia maritima Widgeon Grass BM August 5 2004

This submerged aquatic plant, found for the most part in marsh pools, is about 1 meter in length. It extends roots into the substratum at the bottom of the pool. The slender, linear, simple leaves are attached alternately along the stem.

 

d. Typhaceae (Cat-tail Family)

 

Typha angustifolia (Narrowleaf Cat-tail)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typha_angustifolia

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TYAN 

 

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Posted January 15, 2011 by zottoli

One response to “Salt Marsh Pannes and Pools

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  1. I am looking for good images of Seablight (Sueda linearis) for a coastal plant id guide (these will be printed & made free to residents of the Louisiana coastal zone & will be offered free to anyone online) and I am curious if the image of Sueda that you have here can be borrowed if cited? If so, who should we cite?

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